Massages also have a positive effect on the psyche.

The term "massage" originated from the Arabic and means something like: "touch" or "touch".


The term massage is understood as a process in which mechanically affects the skin, connective tissue and muscles become. This mechanical influence takes place through various manual stretching, pulling, and pressure stimuli. As a rule, a massage is used to relax overworked areas of the body and in this way to prevent and / or treat orthopedic problems. However, a massage can also only be used to relax the psyche and reduce stress.

Massages have already been given thousands of years ago performed and for this reason are among the most likely oldest healing methods of the world. The first records of performing massage-like treatment methods date back to the year 2600 BC. Medical massage itself has its own Probably originates in East Africa. But there are also early records of their implementation from Asia.

There are now completely independent procedures and methods of this type of body relaxation. The theoretical fundamentals of the various types of massage differ from one another very much. The reason for this is the fact that the individual forms on different treatment theories support.

General effects of a massage

Although the individual massage practices differ greatly from one another, all forms have one similar influence on the human body. The main effect of a massage is a local (local) increase in the Blood flow to the skin, connective tissue and muscles. In addition, the relaxing effect of a massage gives a Lowering blood pressure and the Pulse rate.

Precisely these influences are proof of the calming effect a massage. It is precisely this effect that has a long-term effect positive influence on the psyche and well-being of the patient. With the help of common massage techniques, strained and overloaded muscles can be effectively relaxed and the body can be driven to regenerate. Adhesions and scars in the area of ​​the muscular structures and the connective tissue can be effectively solved if carried out properly. Furthermore, according to some studies, a massage can be done regularly positive effect on the healing of wounds prove. In addition, especially in chronic pain patients, massage mediated, analgesic effect to be watched. In many cases the dose can be taken Painkiller (Analgesics) can be reduced in this way even in the long term. Although the massage is only performed superficially on the skin, connective tissue and muscles, the Nerve interconnection (so-called reflex arcs) too Effects on internal organs record. In this way, regular massage not only relaxes the skin and connective tissue, but also has a positive impact on the whole Nervous system exercised.

Effects of the massage at a glance

  • Relaxation of the muscles
  • Relaxation of the skin and connective tissue
  • Loosening of adhesions and scars
  • Lowering blood pressure and heart rate
  • positive influence on that autonomic nervous system
  • Stimulation of cell metabolism
  • Pain relief
  • Stress reduction
  • Relaxation of the psyche

Massage techniques

The various massage techniques are roughly described in two large groups divided: the classic and alternative forms of massage.

In the course of classic massage the skin, the connective tissue and the muscles treated at the exact point that worked by the action of mechanical force becomes. Classical forms of massage are usually all medically recognized and can be found in the usual textbooks and therapy guidelines.
Alternative forms of massage however, deal more with the Treatment of internal organ disorders by Stimulation of the body surface and related Activation of various reflex arcs. In this way, a diseased organ is not treated directly, rather the therapy takes place via the massage of a surface area assigned to this organ.While most of the classic methods are covered by the statutory health insurances, alternative massages are usually one of those services to be paid by the patient himself are.

Furthermore, the different types of massage can be divided into groups direct, reflective and eelectromechanical Massages respectively.

There are also various devices that can be used for massage, such as massage balls or the blackroll.

Classic massage

The classic massage is mainly used at Tension and hardening in the area of ​​the skeletal muscles applied. But also include Musculoskeletal disorders (especially the Spine) and post-traumatic changes typical indications for a classic massage. By activating different reflex zones, this form can even for neurological complaints such as paralysis, spasticity, sensory disorders and neuralgia can be helpful. The classic massage works mainly through one Increase blood circulation in the treated body regions.

According to the guide, the classic massage includes five stepswhich are used in different sections due to their specific effect. The most relaxing of these five movements is the so-called "Deletion" (Effleurage). This method is particularly useful at the beginning of the massage session Distribution of the oil or skin cream. Stroking the skin is especially important as the patient's skin is the first get used to the hand of the masseur should. In the course of application, the deletion serves as a Recovery phase between the other four movements.
In the so-called "Kneading" (Petrissage) become the skin and muscle tissue of the patient kneaded between thumb, index and middle finger. If there is significant tension, the masseur's whole hand can alternatively be used. The main purpose of this handle is to relieve tension in the muscles and to relax the subcutaneous connective tissue by increasing the blood flow.
In the "Friction" (friction) guide both the fingertips and the ball of the hand of the therapist small, circular movements on the patient's body surface. With the help of this handle, tension and hardening of overstrained muscle areas can be effectively relieved.
Another handle of the classic massage is that "Knocking" (Tapotement). The therapist guides either with the edge of the hand or with the fingers short, beating movements out. In this way, the local blood flow can be greatly increased and the degree of tension (tone) the muscles are reduced.
In the "Vibration" (vibration) fingertips or flat hands are placed on the patient and a Muscle tremors initiated. This particular move seems to have a relevant influence on the deeper tissue and even the internal organs. In addition, the "shock" has a loosening effect and for this reason can be used to relieve convulsions.

While the classic massage is extremely suitable for the treatment of chronic diseases, apply acute inflammation as an absolute contraindication. This means that a classic massage must not be performed on patients with acute inflammatory processes in the musculoskeletal system. This rule also applies to other acute illnesses such as febrile infections and Vascular system disorders. The reason for the prohibition of classic massages in such patients is the fact that it is assumed that the massage would put too much strain on the already weakened organism. It should also be a classic massage not in patients with pronounced skin conditions be performed. The pressure on the skin during the massage could make these changes worse.

Acupressure divides the body into different channels.

Reflective massage

Reflective massage measures become the group of so-called alternative forms of massage counted. This means that it is not the diseased or painful area of ​​the body that is massaged during the application, but rather other regionsthat are supposed to influence the disease through a reflex process.

Acupressure: Probably best known form The reflex massage is acupressure. Acupressure originated from the Asian region, is assigned to traditional medicine and is now also enjoying great popularity in Europe. The principle of acupressure is based on the Assignment of different, specific pressure points to individual body regions and organs. Activating one of these pressure points should stimulate conduction pathways and thus influence the corresponding organ. Overall describes the teaching of acupressure 20 of these lines. In addition, this type of alternative massage aims at one balance between body and mind from. Acupressure massage is a further development of ordinary acupressure, in which special massage sticks are used. At the beginning of a treatment unit, the therapist strokes the center of the patient's body from the head to the feet. In this way a first impression of the physical and mental condition should be obtained. Once the therapist is one Imbalance in the skin the targeted treatment with the help of the massage stick begins.

Cupping massage: In addition, the so-called "cupping head massage" is used particularly frequently nowadays. With this type of massage a special cupping glass on an intact skin area put on. The cupping glass is in direct contact with an oil that was previously applied to the body surface and creates a slight suction on the tissue. The cupping glass can then be moved over the area to be treated. The effect of this form of massage is based in one Increase blood circulation the skin, connective tissue and muscles. It has been proven that the cupping massage unfolds a stronger circulation-promoting effect than the classic massage.
The actual treatment effects of the alternative forms of massage are so far not scientifically proven. Typical indications for performing reflective forms of massage are complaints such as migraine and Rheumatism. In addition, especially cupping is considered special promising method of treatment in patients with Disc problems, Knee problems and Lumbago.

As already mentioned, the indications for reflex massage are limited not on musculoskeletal disorders. Also for internal diseases acupressure and cupping should have a positive effect. For this reason, more and more patients are undergoing the bronchitis, asthma, high blood pressure, Hypotension or have digestive problems, acupressure. Even people with chronic inflammation in the area of ​​the tonsils should be able to be helped by using the cupping massage.

Electromechanical massage

Meanwhile the massage is no purely manual treatment measure more. Electromechanical massage devices are becoming increasingly popular, but are far inferior to the classic forms of massage. Special massage beds enable relaxation while lying down. In addition, thighs, move and / or neck through special massage chairs be loosened up. Such armchairs can now be found in most shopping centers. All electromechanical devices have in common that the massage has one Interplay of vibrating elements, rotating rollers, cylinders or air cushions is carried out. Depending on the device, pressure, kneading and tapping massages can be made possible and the muscles relaxed. Similar to the classic massage, the effects of the electromechanical devices are controlled by a Increase in tissue and muscle blood flow conveyed.