As an organ of continence, the anus has an important function in mammals. Defecation can only be controlled through smooth communication between the brain and the various muscles of the anus.
Especially at elderly or young children however, this communication can be disturbed. In addition, diseases of the anal canal often mean that the chair can no longer be held willingly. For those affected, this condition results in an enormous level of suffering that can severely limit everyday life. For this reason, people who Notice problems with bowel movementsconsult a specialist early on. After extensive diagnostics, he can initiate appropriate treatment.
The anus represents in principle a simple one Opening of the intestinal canal . Through the anus, indigestible food components can Gastrointestinal tract leave. Due to the fact that the anus is a continuation of the Colon represents, it can be assumed that the anatomical structure of both structures is similar.
The end of the gastrointestinal tract has two important muscles that are placed in a ring around the anus. Both muscles are controlled by different parts of the nervous system.
During the internal sphincter muscle of the anus (Internal anal sphincter muscle) is supplied by involuntary nerve fibers, the external sphincter (External ani sphincter muscle) in connection with voluntary nerves. Due to this innervation, the internal sphincter not control by your own will. The external sphincter of the anus, on the other hand, can controlled open or locked.
The real job of these two muscles lies in the Regulation of defecation. Together with the so-called Levator ani muscle, the inner and outer muscles of the anus form the Closing apparatus of the rectum (rectum). In addition, the Sphincter muscles the end section of the gastrointestinal tract and thus form the anal canal. This channel can be a Length of about two to four centimeters accept.
Common diseases of the anus
The anus itself is one of the most sensitive structures of the gastrointestinal tract. For this reason, a variety of diseases can lead to irregularities in bowel movements. The main diseases of the anus include:
- Skin tags
- Anal fissure
- Anal cancer
- Perianal thrombosis
- Perianal abscess
- Perianal fistula
At Skin tags it is about sagging skin foldslocated in the area of the anus. In most cases, patients who have skin tags feel no complaints whatsoever. For this reason, the presence of these anal skin folds is considered to be rather unproblematic. Symptoms usually only occur if the Anal hygiene is neglected.
The reason for this is the fact that bacterial pathogens and fungi can settle particularly quickly in the skin folds, multiply and thus cause infections. The affected patients then typically feel severe itching and pain in the anal region. Clinically, the anus of those affected shows up as reddened and swollen.
While asymptomatic skin tags Do not require treatment should anal skin folds that itching and or Burn provoke urgent surgical treatment. During the surgical procedure, the skin tags can be covered with a electric knife gently removed and freedom from symptoms for the patient concerned. However, since most patients have a tendency to develop skin tags, it can happen that after a short time a new skin fold occurs. For this very reason, a optimal anal hygiene are in the foreground with skin tags.
At hemorrhoids it is about arterio-venous vascular pads (i.e. vascular cushions that have both arteries and veins) that push out of the intestinal canal in the area of the anus. In general, it can be assumed that approximately 80 percent of the adult population having such vascular pads.
In most cases, the development of a hemorrhoid is caused by stool regulation problems.
Especially pressing too hard during bowel movements is considered a risk factor for the appearance of hemorrhoids on the anus.
Also the pressure increase in the abdomen in the course of a pregnancy can promote the development of hemorrhoids.
In addition, you can Connective tissue weaknesses and increases in pressure within the sphincter muscles of the anus promote the development of hemorrhoids.
Individuals who have bulging anal vascular cushions are most likely to suffer from it severe itching and Painful bowel movements. Also include occasional bleeding and the Feeling of incomplete defecation among the most common symptoms of hemorrhoids.
The treatment of hemorrhoids depends mainly on the during one digital rectal exam determined severity. In addition, the symptoms perceived by the affected patient are of decisive importance. Hemorrhoids that are still did not emerge from the anus are (Grade I.) are usually conservative, i.e. through targeted stool regulation and advice.
For advanced hemorrhoids that clearly protrude from the anus, a more extensive therapy to be necessary. Especially the so-called Sclerotherapy is one of the most frequently performed treatment measures. In this procedure will be small portions of the hemorrhoid fixed and then with a substance that provokes inflammatory reactions (for example Polidocanol), treated. In this way, the vascular cushions and the Hemorrhoid shrinks. Various complaints can be used against the problems caused by the vascular pads Creams and ointmentsthat need to be applied to the anus will help.
At a Anal cancer it is a rather rare, but very malicious Tumor of the anus. From a histological point of view, anal carcinoma is one of the so-called squamous cell carcinomas. Rapid metastasis via the lymphatic system is typical of this cancer. Affected patients usually already notice early pain during bowel movements and a pronounced Foreign body sensation on the anus. Also include severe itching, Stool irregularities and Bleeding one of the most common symptoms of anal cancer.
The treatment of this cancer depends primarily on the exact location of the tumor. The complete removal of the changed tissue is the goal of every therapeutic strategy. With small carcinomas, the surgical removal target of the tumor in the healthy. Larger anal cancers, on the other hand, usually require combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Only after the changed tissue on the anus has shrunk can an operative treatment be initiated.
A Anus praeter (Synonyms: artificial anus, Enterostomy) is an artificially created anus in which the intestinal contents are drained through the abdominal wall. The creation of an anus praeter is always necessary when parts of the intestinal tube are diseased and have to be surgically removed. In addition, a pronounced Fecal incontinence make the creation of an anus praeter necessary. In most cases (around 70 percent of those affected) the anus is praeter in the course of a malignant tumor disease of the rectum (Rectal cancer) created. It also includes inflammatory bowel disease, for example Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis, one of the most common reasons for creating an anus praeter.
In the surgical facility an anus praeter, a healthy end of the intestinal canal is fixed to the abdominal wall by sutures. The other end of the intestinal canal must then be closed in the abdominal cavity or also directed to the outside through the abdominal wall. Since the end of the intestine used to create the anus is missing the sphincter, the only way to empty the stool is this way without voluntary influence respectively. In order to be able to catch the diverted stool, a odor and liquid-tight bags fixed on the skin of the abdomen, directly above the anus praeter. However, this must be changed at regular intervals.
Since an anus praeter is also a surgical intervention serious complications can arise. Skin irritation in the area of the anus praeter that will make up with time Infections are among the most common problems. The reason for the development of these skin symptoms is the constant contact of the skin surface with the stool. In addition, some of the affected patients react oversensitive to the adhesive material of the collection bag. In addition, it can praeter too immediately after the creation of the anus inflammatory reactions in the surgical field come. Wound healing disorders are also not uncommon in patients with anus praeter. If complications arise after creating an anus praeter, a further surgical intervention be performed. Although many of the affected patients feel restricted in their everyday life, it must be stated that people with anus are basically praeter same activities can exercise like other people.
Anus itches / anus hurts
Pronounced itching and pain in the anus (anus itches; Pruritus ani) affect about one to five percent of the population. There can be a variety of causes for an anus that itches or burns. Both serious changes and comparatively harmless causes can lead to the anus itching and the affected patients feeling pain.
Severe pain in the area of the anus, which is accompanied by itching, occurs particularly often in diseases of the last section of the intestine (proctological diseases) on.
Especially people who are highly educated hemorrhoids often suffer from pain and itching of the anus. In addition, you can local inflammation or skin irritation caused by stool make the anus itchy and painful.
Also allergic reaction on personal care products and / or food can cause the anus to itch for a short time. In these cases, however, the itchiness usually lets through nourishing ointments and creams to treat.
A brief itching on the buttocks, which disappears again without special measures, does not necessarily require a medical examination. Keeps the itchy though over an extended timespan a specialist should be urgently consulted. A doctor should also be consulted promptly if there is pain in the area of the intestinal outlet.
Under the term "anus bleaching" (synonym: Anal whitening) is a process in which the skin in the area of the anus is lightened. In the area of the anus, it shows the skin surface in most people as slightly darker than the surrounding skin. This is completely normal and usually has no pathological value. With the help of anus bleaching, however, the darker skin can be lightened so that its color corresponds to that of the surrounding skin surface.
In most cases, acidic creams and lotions are used for this. Vitamin A and ascorbic acid in particular should be particularly suitable for whitening the anus. In order to be able to lighten the skin of the anus, the special creams must be applied regularly over a period of about a month. The ingredients of the creams used have the ability to inhibit enzymes that are responsible for the storage of color particles. As soon as these enzymes resume their activity, they start to store pigments again in the skin of the anus.
For this reason, the skin cannot be permanently lightened even by bleaching.
An anus that is inflamed can too severe pain and itching to lead. Inflammatory processes in the area of the intestinal outlet can have a variety of causes.
The most common conditions that lead to an inflamed anus include hemorrhoids and simple Hypersensitivity symptoms. As soon as the sensitive skin of the anus, for example in gastrointestinal diseases, comes into increased contact with stool, it can be damaged. This damage is usually shown by the fact that the anus is locally inflamed. Affected patients typically feel burning pain in the anal region. In addition, wise Reddening of the skin, Swelling and Overheating towards inflammation of the anus.
In the case of particularly pronounced inflammatory processes, it can even impair the Fecal incontinence come. In addition to hemorrhoids, so-called Perianal fistulas One of the most common reasons why the anus can be inflamed. Fistulas are cavities in the skin filled with pus. In contrast to the abscess, however, fistulas have an opening to the body surface.