Induction of childbirth
Avoiding tension, fear and pain are particularly important in making childbirth easier.
With breathing exercises and pregnancy gymnastics during the birth preparation techniques for relaxation and abdominal breathing can be learned, which counteract tension during the birth.
Read more on the topic: Pregnancy gymnastics
Premature information about the course of the birth, the inspection of the delivery room as well as human affection and conveyed security can minimize the fear that arises in order to be able to initiate a birth optimally. The pain caused by childbirth varies greatly from person to person and can be reduced by various painkillers (Analgesics) or forms of anesthesia are made tolerable for the woman giving birth.
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Contractions are the fundamental forces that induce childbirth. They originate from the contraction of the uterine muscle layer (Myometrium). Even during pregnancy, contractions occur at irregular intervals, which increase in frequency towards the end of the pregnancy. However, the pregnant woman does not perceive them as painful, but at most as hardening.
About a month before the birth, the so-called "Labor pains“Through which the uterus lowers. In the days before the birth, there are strong, irregular contractions. They press the child's head into the pelvic entrance, especially in first-time women. There is a smooth transition to the labor pains that now follow. Labor contractions continuously increase in strength and frequency, so that at the end of the expulsion phase a contraction occurs every 2 to 3 minutes and the abdominal muscles are also involved in the contraction. At the end of each contraction, the muscle fibers remain in a shortened state. The placenta is born when the afterbirth pains decrease in intensity and frequency.
It can also happen that the contractions have not started 14 days after the due date or after the rupture of the bladder. In these cases, the clinic will consider giving a contractions cocktail, which is made from natural ingredients on the basis of castor oil and can promote the development of regular contractions.
Read more on the subject at:
- Breathe in contractions
- Induce labor - when, with what and what are the risks?
Course of birth
The process of a regular birth is divided into three phases.
- Opening phase
- Expulsion phase
- Postpartum phase
1. Opening phase:
It begins with the onset of regular painful contractions that open the cervix and stretch and loosen the cervix.
The opening of the cervix is additionally reinforced by the action of prostaglandins, certain tissue hormones; this process is called cervical ripening. In a primiparous woman, the cervix initially shortens, which leads to the opening of the internal cervix. The external cervix opens only after the cervix is completely shortened. If a pregnant woman has already given birth several times, the inner and outer cervix are shortened and opened at the same time. The pain during this phase is mainly caused by the opening of the cervix and the stretching of the cervix and the lower part of the uterus. At the end of the opening phase with a complete opening of the cervix, the bladder ruptures, followed by stronger and more frequent contractions.
2. Expulsion phase:
It begins with the full opening of the cervix and ends with the birth of the child. As soon as the child's head reaches the mother's pelvic floor, the mother starts to push reflexively by tensing the abdominal wall muscles. This intensified pressing phase causes the soft tissue tube of the birth canal to widen. The main cause of pain during this period is the stretching of the pelvic floor and the soft tissue canal. Understandably, the burden on the mother is greatest at this stage of the birth.
If the child's head is visible in the vagina during a contraction, it is called "cutting into". If you can see the head during the pauses in labor, the head can step out; what is called "cutting through" the head. The dam experiences maximum stress from extreme expansion. The occiput is the first to emerge from the birth canal. Then come the parting and the forehead with face. The expulsion phase is the most dangerous phase during childbirth for the child.
The uterus and thus the placenta (placenta) is no longer well supplied with blood, which is why the child receives too little oxygen if the expulsion phase is too long. The strong pressure on the child's head with each new contraction can lead to reduced blood flow to the brain. It should therefore take about an hour for first-time mothers and about half an hour for multiparous women. For this reason, the birth is monitored particularly closely during this phase.
3rd postpartum phase:
It covers the period from the birth of the child to the complete expulsion of the mother cake (placenta). Detachment occurs after the placenta itself releases a large amount of prostaglandins, which causes the uterus to contract. This reduces the adhesive surface of the placenta and leads to detachment. With the help of three signs one can infer the solution of the placenta. On the one hand, the uterus contracts narrow and angular above the detached placenta and can be felt (uterine edge sign). The loosening of the placenta can also be assessed by pressing the abdominal wall below the navel.
If the umbilical cord moves back into the vagina when it is pushed in, the placenta has not yet loosened. In addition, the advancement of the umbilical cord is used to assess the postpartum. The contractions during the postpartum phase cause the uterus to contract, compressing the blood vessels and reducing the flow of blood.
The activation of the blood coagulation system and the clamping of the umbilical cord also mean that the blood loss in one birth is normally 300 ml.
Read more on the topic: Afterbirth