Joint forms of human joints


Joint head, joint socket, joint mobility

Medical: Articulatio

English: joint

Figure joint shapes

Figure joint shapes of human joints
  1. Wheel angle joint
    = Swivel hinge joint
    (e.g. knee joint)
  2. Saddle joint
    (e.g. thumb saddle joint)
  3. Ball joint
    (e.g. shoulder joint,
    Hip joint)
  4. Hinge joint
    (e.g. elbow joint)
  5. Wheel joint
    = Pivot joint
    (e.g. spoke-ulnar joints)
  6. Egg joint (not shown)
    similar to ball joint,
    only biaxial
    (e.g. proximal wrist)

    Uniaxial Joints -
    Hinge joint and wheel joint
    Biaxial joints -
    Wheel angle joint, saddle joint
    and egg joint

    Triaxial joint - Ball joint

You can find an overview of all Dr-Gumpert images at: medical illustrations

Joint shapes

Ball joints:

Ball joints consist of an approximately spherical joint head and a correspondingly hollowed-out socket.
Typical ball joints include:

  • hip joint
  • Shoulder joint and
  • Metatarsophalangeal joints

Ball joints have an infinite number of axes of movement, but from a functional point of view three main axes are defined, so that these are joints with three degrees of freedom. This is done around a sagital axis:

  • Spreading (Abduction) and the
  • Bring up (Adduction) to the transverse axis that
  • Bend (Flexion) and the
  • Stretch (Extension) and around the longitudinal axis the
  • Inward curl (Internal rotation) and
  • Outside roll (External rotation)

Nut joints:

As Nut joint Joints are referred to in which the joint socket extends beyond the equator of the joint head.

Egg joints:

Egg joints have elliptical joint bodies with two joint bodies perpendicular to one another. Two degrees of freedom are possible and thus four main movements are possible.
These are typical egg joints body-hugging wrist and the head joints between the occiput and first cervical vertebra (Atlas).

Hinge joints:

Hinge, wheel or pin joints are also referred to as roller joints. In the case of hinge joints, it intervenes cylindrical joint body into the channel-shaped recess of a hollow cylindrical joint body.
Hinge joints only have a degree of freedom. Typical hinge joints are:

  • Elbow joint and the
  • upper Ankle joint

At wheel- or Pivot joints stands a cylindrical skeleton element with a corresponding part of a Hollow cylinder and a ring or cross band in connection. Only rotary movements around one axis are possible here.

Saddle joint:

Saddle joints have saddle-shaped curved joint surfaces whose two main axes of movement are perpendicular to each other. Rotational movements are only possible with the loss of contact between the two joint surfaces. The Thumb saddle joint is a typical saddle joint.

Plane joints:

Plane joints have almost flat joint surfaces and allow shifting and rotating movements in one plane. The small Vertebral joints are among the flat joints.

tight joints

As tight joints (Amphiarthroses) are joints whose mobility is severely restricted by tight ligaments. This includes the body-hugging Tibial fibula joint (Tibiofibular joint) as well as thatSacrum joint (Sacroiliac joint).

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Who am I?
My name is dr. Nicolas Gumpert. I am a specialist in orthopedics and the founder of and work as an orthopedist at Lumedis.
Various television programs and print media report regularly about my work. On HR television you can see me live every 6 weeks on "Hallo Hessen".
But now enough is indicated ;-)

In order to be able to treat successfully in orthopedics, a thorough examination, diagnosis and a medical history are required.
In our very economic world in particular, there is not enough time to thoroughly grasp the complex diseases of orthopedics and thus initiate targeted treatment.
I don't want to join the ranks of "quick knife pullers".
The aim of all treatment is treatment without surgery.

Which therapy achieves the best results in the long term can only be determined after looking at all of the information (Examination, X-ray, ultrasound, MRI, etc.) be assessed.

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  • Lumedis - orthopedic surgeons
    Kaiserstrasse 14
    60311 Frankfurt am Main

You can make an appointment here.
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For more information about myself, see Lumedis - Orthopedists.