Strength (as a conditional ability)

Strength as a conditional ability in addition to endurance, speed and flexibility


The conditional ability of strength can be divided into 4 possibilities:

  1. Didactic structure (the training goal determines the breakdown)
  2. Methodical breakdown (the training methods used determine the breakdown)
  3. Content structure (structured determination of the training content / anatomical, physiological and physical aspects)
  4. Organizational structure (structure through organizational forms)
1. Didactic structure

Biomechanical structure of the force

Operational definitions:

  • Statkraft = K30 / 30 ms after the start of the contraction
  • Explosive power = Delta (F) / Delta (t)
  • Maximum strength = highest point in the force curve
  • Speed ​​strength index = F (max) / t (max)

Nominal definitions:

  • Statkraft = Force value reached 30 ms after contraction.
  • Explosive power = steepest section of the force-time curve
  • Maximum strength = highest possible force that a person can voluntarily release during isometric contraction
  • Speed ​​strength index = Quotient of maximum force and the time it takes to achieve this value

Manifestations of power

  • Maximum strength
  • Speed ​​power
  • Reactive force
  • Strength endurance


Earlier maximum strength, speed strength and strength endurance were subforms of strength. (LAST ELDER)

today the maximum strength of the speed strength, reactive strength and strength endurance takes precedence, as it has a positive influence on subordinate ones.

The maximum strength

The maximum force (MK) is defined as the maximum force that the nerve-muscle system can generate during voluntary contraction. All about training of maximum strength can be found under: Maximum strength training.

The maximum force is generated by:

  • Muscle quantity (cross section / muscle size)
  • Arbitrary ability to activate
  • Muscle quality (FT or ST fibers)

Absolute force: The absolute force describes the force value that can be maximally generated from the physiological point of view of the muscles and consists of the maximum force and the so-called autonomously protected reserves.

Strength deficit: difference between absolute strength and maximum strength. The strength deficit decreases with increasing performance.

Speed ​​power

Def.: The speed force is defined as the ability to generate the highest possible force value within an available time.

Use at:

  • Accelerations of the own body (Sprint)
  • Accelerations of the Body of an opponent (Martial arts)
  • Accelerations one Device (Litter)
  • Accelerations one Partial body (Fencing)

Reactive force

The Reactive force (reactive tension of the muscles) is defined as the force in the so-called Stretch-shortening cycle to create the highest possible impulse.
The stretch shortening cycle describes the short phase between concentric and eccentric working methods.

Muscle fiber types:

  • FT fibers (Fast Twitch fibers) = fast, easily fatigued fibers with a high glycogen content.
  • ST fibers (Slow Twitch fibers)


The recruitment is understood as the ability to involve as many motor units as possible in muscle contraction. The more motor units are recruited for the voluntary contraction, the greater the power development.

  • The individual motor units have different arousal thresholds
  • The course of a muscle contraction follows the principle of Hennemann's order of magnitude (recruitment sequence from small to large motor units -> initially innervation of weak / enduring units, with higher power requirements in the further course also fast, strong units


The Frequencying is defined as the ability to contract muscles sustainable and high frequency to innervate.
(Hz = Hertz (frequencies per second))

  • A maximum power output is possible from approx. 55 Hz
  • max 155 Hz

Strength endurance

Strength endurance is the ability to give a boost (> 30% of the maximum strength) to produce in a given time and to keep the fatigue-related loss of strength as low as possible.


  • static strength endurance
  • dynamic strength endurance
2. Methodical structure

In the methodical structure the strength is the focus on the training methods used

Maximum strength training


1. Method of repeated use of force (Hypertrophy training):

Intensity: 40 - 60%
Repetitions: 10-12
Break (stimulus density): 2 - 3 minutes
Movement speed: slow - brisk

2. Method of maximum effort (intramuscular coordination):

Intensity: 85 - 100%
Repetitions: 1 - 5
Break (stimulus density): 3 - 5 minutes
Movement speed: explosive

Speed ​​strength training

1. Standard method:

  • 6 series With 60% the maximum force and 8 Repetitions

2. Cyclical method:

  • 6 series alternately 40% and 60% the maximum force with 10 or. 8 Repetitions

3. Method of progressive additional load:

  • starting from 40% -> increase on 70% (4 series)

4th progressive / regressive method:

  • 40% --> 70% --> 40% (8 series)

Reactive strength training

Notice! Reactive strength training is always based on adjustments in the nervous system. The training therefore always takes place in a rested state and without additional load.
Breaks from series are particularly important in reactive strength training.

Strength endurance training:


Strength endurance method 1:

Intensity: 40 - 60%
Repetitions: 10-20
Series: 3 - 5
Pause (stimulus density): 30 - 90 seconds
Movement speed: slow - brisk

Strength endurance method 2:

Intensity: 25 - 40%
Repetitions:> 30
Series: 4 - 6
Pause (stimulus density): 30 - 60 seconds
Movement speed: slow - brisk

Strength endurance method 3:

Intensity: 50 - 60%
Repetitions: 20-30
Series: 6 - 8
Pause (stimulus density): 30 - 60 seconds
Movement speed: slow - brisk

3. Content structure

Describes the structure according to content-related aspects of strength training based on the anatomical, physical and physiological Points of view.


  1. Anatomically oriented division (depending on the size of the muscle groups involved, below 1/3, between 1/3 and 2/3 and more than 2/3)
  2. Training-didactically oriented structure (general development exercises, special exercises, competition exercises)
  3. Physically / physiologically oriented structure

Classification according to physical / physiological aspects:

  • concentric = overcoming (positive dynamic) muscle shortens
  • eccentric = yielding (negative dynamic) muscle lengthens
  • isometric = holding - muscle length remains the same
  • isotonic = Change in muscle length with constant tension (rare in sports)
  • auxotonic = Change in muscle length and muscle tension (often in sports)
  • isokinetic = not in nature