Formation of the ADH:
ADH, which is also called antidiuretic hormone, adiuretin or vasopressin, is a peptide hormone. This hormone is produced together with the carrier protein Neurophysin II in special nuclei of the hypothalamus (Nucleus supraopticus, nucleus paraventricularis). It is then stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, from which the hormones are released into the blood if necessary. The breakdown of ADH takes place in the liver.
V1 and V2 receptors that match the hormone are located on the cell surface of the target cells.
Regulation of ADH:
The amount of the hormone ADH is regulated by serum osmolality and blood pressure.
Under Osmolality one understands the amount of osmotically effective particles in a liquid, in this case in the blood. Osmotically effective means that the particles react according to the principle of osmosis, which is understood to mean particle movement across a membrane due to different concentrations on both sides of the membrane. The particles move with the aim of creating the same amount of particles per unit of liquid on each side (concentration).
Alternatively, if the membrane is impermeable to the particles, water flows from one side to the other for dilution, as the membrane usually allows this to pass.
An increase in osmolality attracts increased ADH distribution after yourself. The osmolality is measured via osmoreceptors, which are mainly found in the hypothalamus. In addition, there are baroreceptors for measuring blood pressure at certain points in large blood vessels - namely in the carotid sinus and in the aortic sinus. In the Auricles are volume receptors. These two types of receptors make it possible to regulate blood pressure via the coupled ADH release.
ADH as the second component of this Hormones acts on the blood vessels, the sugar metabolism, through kidney on the water balance and on the anterior pituitary gland.
The hormone points to the vessels ADH a constricting effect (Vasoconstriction), which results in an increase in blood pressure. In the liver, the hormone forces the emptying of the sugar stores (Glycogenolysis) and thus sugar is released into the blood. Furthermore works ADH on the portal vein system of the liver (Vascular system) lowering blood pressure. In the kidneys, this hormone acts on the so-called collecting pipes (structures for draining urine) by increasing the body's water reabsorption through the installation of water channels (aquaporins) and thus reducing water excretion by reducing the amount of urine. Rather, the urine is less diluted, so that the osmolality increases.
alcohol causes inhibition of ADH secretion. This leads to the diuretic effect of alcohol. Without the hormone ADH, a lot of water or urine is excreted, which is known as diuresis.