Craniomandibular system


The Craniomandibular system or also called the chewing system or chewing organ is the entrance gate for the whole Digestive contract. It consists of different and different body parts with different tasks.

The components of the craniomandibular system

The chewing organ includes:

  • Masticatory muscles
  • upper jaw
  • Lower jaw
  • palate
  • Temporomandibular joint
  • teeth
  • Teeth-supporting apparatus
  • tongue
  • Salivary glands

Masticatory muscles

The chewing movements are carried out by the chewing muscles. In addition to the large muscles of mastication, it also includes numerous smaller ones Muscleswho are also responsible for facial expressions, i.e. facial expressions.

upper jaw

Of the upper jaw is firmly fused with the skull bone. It cannot therefore be moved. Inside the upper jaw is the Maxillary sinus, the dimensions of which can be different. Important when providing implants. Of the Alveolar ridge carries the teeth.

Lower jaw

The lower jaw is the movable part of the two jaws. The chewing movements are carried out with him. In the interior of the lower jaw runs the mandibular canal, in which blood vessels and annoy run away


The palate is the roof of the Oral cavity. It is divided into two parts. The hard palate lies directly on the bone, while the back part of the soft palate consists of muscles and ends in the soft palate.

Temporomandibular joint

The temporomandibular joint is a Swivel and sliding jointthat controls the movements of the lower jaw against the upper jaw. By Misaligned teeth, too high Fillings or parafunctions such as grinding can lead to pain and irreparable damage to the temporomandibular joint. Like all joints, the temporomandibular joint can also have a Artherosclerosis to get.


The deciduous dentition has 20 teeth, the permanent 32 teeth. The teeth are shaped differently, adapted to their task. The incisors are wedge-shaped and are used to cut off the food. The small and large molars have a wide surface and are responsible for grinding the food. Teeth are also necessary for speaking and facial expression.

Teeth-supporting apparatus

The teeth stand in the alveolar process of the jawbone and are through the Teeth-supporting apparatus connected to the bone. Elastic fibers are the connection between Tooth root and bones.


The tongue is a movable one Muscle, which has grown together with the floor of the mouth. When eating, it moves the chyme so that all parts can be chewed optimally. It is also essential for speaking. There are taste buds on the surface of the tongue that respond to bitter, sour, salty, and sweet.

Salivary glands

The Salivary glands provide the fluid necessary to keep the mucous membrane moist. Of the Parotid glands a viscous saliva is secreted during the Salivary glands produce thin saliva under the tongue. Of the saliva not only makes the food smoother for the act of swallowing, it also contains the enzyme Ptyalinthat the Carbohydrates already breaks down and thus initiates pre-digestion. Calcium and fluoride are also contained in the saliva, which remineralize the tooth enamel.

The entire oral cavity is lined with mucous membrane. On the teeth, it rests firmly on the bone as gums and is pink in color. The rest of the mucous membrane is red in color.


The craniomandibular system, also known as the chewing organ, comprises all parts of the body that are necessary for food intake. These are muscles, mucous membranes, bones, hard tooth tissue and glands. Only the interaction of the different components enables good preparation of the food.