Proper nutrition plays a crucial role in maintaining good health. Different goals require different eating habits. On the one hand, nutrition can be used for therapeutic purposes; on the other hand, nutrition plays an important role in athletic success. In addition, hianus fulfills healthy nutrition in maintaining healthy teeth. The following points must be met for a balanced and wholesome diet.

  • The required energy needs must come from the main energy suppliers, carbohydrates and fats
  • Sufficient proteins must be supplied to cover the substance requirement and the cell structure, as well as the maintenance and repair of the cells
  • Vitamins and minerals must be covered by an adequate intake
  • The preparation should be tasty.

If these four points are observed, optimal performance can be achieved for physically active as well as non-athletes. In high-performance sport, the performance of the intestine becomes a performance-limiting factor, in recreational sport, optimal performance can be achieved even with a limited supply of energy. The nutrition in this case, however, should consist of high quality food. This is especially true for Lose weight the case. Depending on the sporting goals, the priorities of food intake shift from being more energy-providing (carbohydrates in the Endurance sports) to more material structure-related (protein for Muscle building)

Nutritional therapies

The right nutrition is often out therapeutic purposes used. Here is an overview of the right ones Nutritional therapies with different diseases

  • Diet for high blood pressure
  • Diet in Diabetes
  • Colon Disease Diet
  • Diet for small bowel disease
  • Diet for cholesteries
  • Diet for gout
  • Diet for urinary stones
  • Diet for heart disease
  • Kidney Disease Diet
  • Diet in the event of digestive tract disease
  • Diet with hyperlipoproteins

Diet in Sports

In addition to the optimal planning of athletic training, appropriate nutrition plays the decisive role for long-term success. Here you get an overview of all topics in the area nutrition and sport.

  • Muscle building and nutrition
  • Weight training and nutrition
  • Carbohydrates and exercise
  • The right nutritional supplement in sport
  • Doping in sport
  • caffeine

Diet and Weight Loss

The nutrition plays a decisive role in targeted weight reduction. Here you get an overview of interesting information about weight loss.

  • Lose weight
  • Diets
  • Fat burning
  • Obesity
  • Overweight in children
  • Therapy of obesity in children
  • Forms of obesity
  • Determination of body fat percentage
  • Body mass index

Energy demand

The nutrients absorbed through food are broken down in the organism into H2O, Co2 and urea during protein synthesis. The energy released when the nutrients are broken down in the body corresponds exactly to the value of the energy absorbed.

Calorific value:

The calorific value is the amount of energy measured in kilo joules (KJ) that is released in the body when one gram of this nutrient is burned. 1 kilocalorie corresponds exactly to 4.18 KJ

  • carbohydrates (17.2 KJ / g) depending on the composition (glucose = 15.7KJ / g)
  • protein (17.2KJ / g)
  • fat (38.9 KJ / g)

If the amount of energy absorbed is higher than the amount released, there is an increase in body mass / weight gain. If the energy supply is lower than the energy output, there is a decrease in performance and a feeling of hunger.

More than 80% of the energy absorbed through food is released again in the form of heat. Only 10-20% is due to external work (Skeletal muscles) implemented. The values ​​are higher for competitive athletes. Normal eating habits indicate an increased intake of fat (about 40%) and a carbohydrate intake that is too low (about 40%). In addition, the carbohydrates are mainly absorbed (around 50%) in the form of monosaccharides (grape sugar) and disaccharides (commercial sugar). The diet is too high in fat, too high in sugar and too high in animal proteins. In addition, too much alcohol is consumed (average values).

The recommended daily dose for a 35 year old man doing moderate work is around 2500 Kcal / day.

The recommended daily dose of protein is approx. 0.8 g / kg body weight. For a person weighing 75 kg, this corresponds to 60 g of protein per day. 1.5 liters of milk or 200g of meat are enough to meet this requirement. Strength athletes can increase their daily intake according to the phase of muscle building. The recommended daily fat intake for men should be between 80 and 90 g. and between 60 and 70 g for women. lie. The fats should consist mainly of unsaturated fatty acids, these have a free binding site and can e.g. Transporting vitamins. More than half of the energy consumed should consist of carbohydrates and polysaccharides. These include (cereal products, pasta, rice, potatoes, vegetables, etc.) Approx. 350 grams of carbohydrates should be consumed throughout the day.

The three nutrients

More and more Germans are eating too unhealthily

The human diet normally consists of animal and vegetable products. The animal products also include flesh also Eggs and Dairy products). In addition to vitamins, minerals and water, the majority of foods contain only three chemically defined groups that the organism can convert. These three main nutrients, or macronutrients, are:

  1. carbohydrates
  2. Fats
  3. Egg whites

In addition to the main nutrients mentioned above, vitamins, minerals and fiber are part of the diet.


Vitamins as an important part of the diet

Vitamins are chemical compounds that are only required in very small quantities. This is an exception vitamin C, the daily requirement is around 75mg per day. Vitamins are built into coenzymes and accelerate the metabolism (catalytic function). Vitamin deficiency diseases (scurvy when there is a lack of vitamin C) or (rickets in case of lack of Vitamin D) only very rarely. Vitamin deficiency diseases usually occur as a result of an unbalanced diet. More often, however, there are hypovitaminoses, in which relative deficiencies occur without disease states. This is often the case with vitamins of the B group during high physical activity. Vitamins are differentiated in terms of their water solubility. Also read our main topic Vitamins

The fat-soluble include:

  • Vitamin A (Retinol) is contained in fruit, milk and vegetables and is part of the visual purple. Vitamin A can be stored and is used to adapt the eye to different brightness levels.
  • Vitamin E. (Tocopherol), like vitamin C, belongs to the group of Antioxidants and is found in cereal grains and fruits. Vitamin E serves as a protective function against undesired oxidations that can destroy cell and blood vessel walls. The effect of increasing fertility and reducing aging is unproven. Vitamin E is often taken by athletes. More to Vitamin E.
  • Vitamin D (Calciferol) is contained in eggs, milk and cod liver oil. It regulates the phosphate and calcium metabolism and thus influences the mineralization of the bone. Deficiency symptoms cause bone softening, especially in children. More to Vitamin D
  • Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) is mainly found in green vegetables and tomatoes and improves blood clotting. It stimulates the liver to produce prothrobin. If there are deficiency symptoms, blood clotting is delayed. Menhr to Vitamin K


The non-fat-soluble include:

  • vitamin B (B1, B2, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid) are contained in grain, yeast, protein, liver. Vitamin B1 is contained in the breakdown of glucose. A deficiency causes increased lactate levels and reduced performance during exercise. Vitamin B2 is responsible for the aerobic metabolism. Vitamin B6 is involved in the formation of new sugar, as well as hemoglobin and myoglobin formation. A deficiency in vitamin B6 thus causes Anemia and decreased performance. Vitamin B12 is responsible for the fat and carbohydrate metabolism and helps with the formation of red blood cells. Deficiency symptoms are dangerous anemia. More to vitamin B
  • vitamin C, or ascorbic acid can only be saved to a very limited extent and is for the Bone building, Building connective tissue and wound healing are important. Vitamin C is responsible for the absorption of iron in the intestine; tannins from coffee and tea inhibit this absorption. A performance-enhancing as well as increased defense against infection has still not been proven through the intake of vitamin C. The daily dose is between 200-400 mg. Vitamin C is mainly found in fruits and vegetables. A deficiency in vitamin C is particularly evident Bleeding gums noticeable. More to vitamin C


The minerals needed include:

  • Cations (Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Manganese, Kabalt, Zinc and Copper)
  • Anions (Phosphate, chloride, fluoride and iodide)

Minerals are differentiated in their required concentration

Set elements

Sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium as well as phosphate and chloride are very high at a daily dose of approx. 50 mg per kilogram of body weight. The minerals make up 5% of the body mass. Sodium and chloride are outside the cell, potassium and phosphate are inside the cell. There they are for the conduction of excitation annoy, as well as osmotic pressure and water balance of the cells. Other ions perform more specific functions. Phosphate is part of the adenosine triphosphate and is therefore necessary for energy supply. Magnesium is one of the most important minerals and is part of the enzymes for energy transfer to the muscle cells and thus for triggering muscle contraction. Through exercise, magnesium is increasingly absorbed in the muscle cells and excreted through sweat. A magnesium deficiency increases the permeability of the cell walls, which means that enzymes leave the cell. The performance drops and magnesium has to be supplied. Calcium is 50% part of the bones. Due to the increased loss of mineral salts, the need for athletes is significantly higher.

The minerals with low concentration are called Trace elements designated.

Iron as a component of red blood cells is one of the most important. Iron deficiency can thus lead to anemia. Iodide is part of the thyroid hormones and fluoride is for the tooth -, and Bone building necessary.

The function of iron

iron is important for the Oxygen transport in the blood and thus for the maintenance of the metabolism. At Iron deficiency you feel exhausted and exhausted. The body can do that carbohydrates In the case of iron deficiency, they are difficult to metabolize and therefore only have a very limited amount of energy available. Iron levels fluctuate in many people due to metabolic disorders and unfavorable nutrition. During sporting activity and increased sweat loss there is also a loss of iron. The human body needs about 15 mg to compensate for the loss. per day.

You might also be interested in this topic: Iron in the human body

How do you recognize iron deficiency?

  • Disruption of hair and nail growth
  • Cracks in the corner of the mouth
  • Fatigue and indolence
  • Decreased efficiency
  • Pale skin

An iron deficiency builds up over a very long period of time. It also takes several months for a therapy to show visible results. A sufficient iron supply is therefore particularly important.

Three points for iron control:

  1. Pay particular attention to the adequate iron intake through food
  2. Use activators for iron absorption
  3. Avoid iron inhibitors (see below)

Iron from animal products is much better absorbed by the human body than iron from plant products. Animal iron is in the divalent form. Endurance athletes in particular should ensure that they have an adequate supply of iron.

Read more on the topic: Foods with iron

Activators for iron absorption:

  • vitamin C: converts the trivalent iron form into bivalent
  • Sprouts: has a particularly suitable iron availability
  • Lactic acid: builds the iron inhibitor phytic acid

Iron absorption inhibiting factors:

  • Phytic acid: occurs in all unleavened whole grains
  • Cola drinks: inhibit iron absorption and should therefore be avoided during meals
  • Tannic acid: Iron binds to itself in coffee and can therefore no longer be absorbed by the body. These should be taken between meals.

Diet in Sports

  • Sports: Bodybuilding, weight lifting, weight training, muscle building
  • Requirement: Enlargement of the muscle cross-section with little fat content
  • Nutrition: Protein-rich diet with up to 3g of protein per kilogram of body weight. Additional nutritional supplements with BCAA, glutamine, tryptophan
  • Sports: Running, swimming, cycling, triathlon, marathon, biathlon, rowing
  • Requirement: Improvement and maintenance of endurance or strength endurance. Rapid regeneration after exercise
  • Nutrition: High energy intake through carbohydrates and proteins. Up to 6000kcal per day. Additional food supplements with vitamins, minerals, L-carnitine
  • Sports: Martial arts
  • Requirement: Weight control, weight loss and weight gain
  • Nutrition: Drastic change of energy and water supply before and after weighing. Before an energetic deficiency, afterwards loading
  • Sports: compositional sports
  • Requirement: Keeping lower body mass
  • Nutrition: Low energy nutrition. Supplements with vitamins and proteins

Obesity (obesity) / overweight

In addition to the lack of exercise is the wrong one nutrition common cause of obesity Obesity. There is a permanently increased energy supply compared to the energy consumption. Individual fat storage becomes a problem when body mass significantly exceeds the normal range. Determining obesity proves to be extremely difficult, as most methods only relate weight to height. See BMI (Body mass index). The determination of the body fat percentage appears to be much more useful. Men are considered obese if their body fat percentage is over 20%, and women over 30%. See also Obesity. Need information on the subject Bad breath?