Intelligence test - measurement of intelligence
Synonyms in a broader sense
Intelligence, intelligence test, IQ, IQ - measurement, talent, high talent, special talent, genius, special talent, high intelligence, highly intelligent, highly gifted, high performance, Giftedness, Giftedness and partial performance disorder, giftedness and Dyscalculia, Giftedness and Dyslexia, ADS, ADHD.
engl .: intelligence test, highly gifted, highly talented, endowment, giftedness.
Intelligence tests offer - provided they are subject to special quality criteria - the possibility of determining intelligence. They are carried out and evaluated by psychologists. At the end there is a value, the so-called intelligence quotient (= IQ).
The term and the possibility of measurement was developed over many years. While Galton advanced the measurement of intelligence in the 19th century, and saw intelligence as the sum of the sensibilities of the sense organs, shifted it Binet his research on the physical area and finally introduced the concept of the age of intelligence on the basis of his test developed at the beginning of the 20th century.
star finally took up Binet's current state of research and developed tasks for different age groups based on this. The children to be tested began with the questions of the lowest age group and answered the questions of the different age groups until they were no longer able to answer. The end point at which the test person could no longer answer the questions revealed the age of intelligence.
The Intelligence quotient he then determined the following Formula:
Intelligence age * 100 = intelligence quotient
The intelligence age describes the individual intelligence level at which the child is. This intelligence level is in turn defined by age:
Example: If a 12 year old child only answered the questions that were developed for six year old children, this corresponds to an intelligence age of 6 years and a very likely mental retardation (= delayed maturation).
According to the formula, a child whose intelligence age and age match would have an IQ of 100, since the resolution of the fraction would be 1, multiplied by 100 would then be 100.
The above formula for calculating the intelligence quotient is still integrated into the principles of IQ determination today, but other factors are taken into account. First and foremost, each test procedure is subject to its own definition, and a standard deviation was defined that ultimately differs in English-speaking countries from German-speaking countries.
Promotion of giftedness
To an existing Giftedness are to be funded Concentration games particularly advisable.
For this purpose, we have developed a game in combination with a game manufacturer, which can playfully promote giftedness.
Through the combination of concentration and play, various goals can be achieved very well.
We particularly value the high quality and workmanship of this game.
In the following diagram you can see the intelligence distribution based on the Gaussian distribution. The values in the small box correspond to the respective IQ's.
As such, the IQ is based on the consideration that an average student is assigned the IQ 100. This means that in its comparison group (= peers, tested with the same test), about 50% better results can be achieved. In addition to the IQ 100, he is assigned the percentile rank (PR) 50. Percentage ranking can therefore be used to determine how many children in the comparison group did worse.
The following table is intended to clarify to what extent the intelligence area and percentile rank are related to one another.
Intelligence quotient (IQ) percentile rank (PR)
80 - 89 9 - 23
90 - 109 25 - 73
110 - 119 75 - 90
120 - 129 91 - 97
> 129 > 97
Based on the Munich talent model according to Heller and Hany, which is based on the model by F.J. Mönks developed “triadic interdependence model” (see diagram above), the individual abilities of a person must be divided into cognitive and non-cognitive personality traits.
- math skills
- technical - constructive skills
- Ability to abstract
- Memory performance
- logical thinking skills
- common knowledge
- Willingness to perform and exertion, curiosity and thirst for knowledge
- Work and stress management strategies
- Achievement motivation
- balanced self-concept, moral awareness
- taking responsibility
Accordingly, it should be as broad as possible Diagnosis of all influencing factors take place in order to examine an intelligence as precisely as possible.
Since in particular the external factors (= environmental factors) Subject to a certain subjectivity in the assessment, certain sub-areas of the talent factors (predictors) and performance areas (criteria) can be demonstrated using an intelligence test.
Some areas of the non-cognitive personality traits, such as coping with stress or work strategies, may also be visualized in the test situation.
A diagnosis belongs in the hands of an experienced psychologist. In view of the state of knowledge, in addition to the actual determination of the intelligence quotient, a survey of the parents and teachers will also take place in the context of such a survey to delimit and assess the environmental factors and the non-cognitive personality traits.
A survey of classmates (= peer group), however, is dispensed with. Since adults find it difficult to make such assessments independently of school grades, children of primary school age in particular are very uncritical. Surveys were able to show that sympathy, but also school performance (if known), have a special influence on the assessment of talent.
Opinions on the Assessment of giftedness targets usually contain in addition to the obvious information (Date, information on the intelligence test, anamnesis, reason for the examination) above all Statements about the behavior of the child during the test situation and the actual test results. Expert opinions usually conclude with the psychologist's opinion regarding the assessment of talent. These opinions can additional information from the survey of parents and teachers included. These surveys (see above) can be particularly useful, as both groups have already accompanied the child over a longer period of time and were able to get to know them in different situations.
Intelligence test procedure
Which test is used to measure intelligence is different. Since the Intelligence quotient as such not a generally applicable measure is, just that current level of intelligence related to a specific test procedure reproduces, it must be noted in such a report which procedures were used.
All test procedures that are used in the context of intelligence diagnostics by a psychologist must be certain Quality criteria objectivity subject. So you usually get a good one Reliability, under which the reliability (the measured value and the true value coincide with a high probability) understands.The intelligence tests are based on various quality criteria, so that it can be assumed that the correctness of a test result not doubted must be (= validity). The result must of course also lens , so it must not be influenced either during the implementation, during the evaluation or the interpretation of the result.
Since there are very many different methods for determining the intelligence quotient and thus for measuring intelligence and the individual level of development, a few test methods will only be discussed here as examples. This is partly due to the fairly frequent use of the HAWIK (Hamburger Wechsler intelligence test for children), of the CFT (Culture Fair Intelligence Test) and the Munich battery of giftednesswhich tries in a special way to take into account the various aspects according to the talent model according to Heller and Hany (see above).
Of the HAWIK tests the practical, verbal and general intelligence via various sub-tests, such as: image completion, general knowledge, arithmetic reasoning, etc.
Of the CFT measures the individual ability of a child to recognize rules and to identify certain characteristics. It also measures the extent to which the child is able to grasp and solve problems non-verbally. In total, the test consists of five different sub-tests.
A test procedure that already contains a teacher survey in the form of a checklist is the Munich high-talent battery from Heller and Perleth, which is currently still in development.
Based on the Munich talent model, the individual aspects that determine the development of special talents are integrated into the study. In addition to the general aspects relating to the child's cognitive abilities, it is also about the Question of social competence, motivation, one's own interests and the prevailing school and family climate.
This test procedure will initially be available in two different editions: as MHBT for primary school and as MHBT for secondary school.
More pages on giftedness
Here you will find further information on the topic of giftedness:
- Giftedness in adults
- Causes of giftedness
- Characteristics of giftedness
- Problems of giftedness
- Diagnosis of giftedness
- Support for gifted people
- Educational games
For more information on learning problems, see:
- Speech disorders
- Poor concentration
A list of all topics that we have published under our "Problems with Learning" page can be found under: Problems with Learning A-Z