Nystatin is the product of the bacterium Streptomyces noursei and belongs to the family of antifungal agents. Antifungal drugs are drugs that are used to treat fungal infections. Fungi are known as pathogens, especially in people with a weakened immune system. they can trigger so-called mycoses, fungal infections that can appear on the surface (skin, hair and nails) or deeper (e.g. in the lungs).
Read more on the topic: Antifungal drugs
When to use nystatin
Nystatin is mainly used to treat Yeast infections used. The most common representative of the yeast fungi is the so-called Candida albicans. Candida albicans infections can occur on the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs. The areas of application of nystatin are derived from this.
On the one hand, nystatin is suitable to prevent fungal infections in the Intestinal tract to combat, as the drug is not absorbed by the intestine. On the other hand, it can also be used to treat nail- and Skin fungus can be used. Additionally, candida infections can occur in the mouth and throat (Oral thrush) be treated, as well as fungal infections in the genital area.
Often nystatin is used preventively with long-term use of Antibiotics, cortisone or Chemotherapy drugs prescribed to avoid infection when the immune system is weakened.
Effect of nystatin
Nystatin belongs to the family of Polyenes. This to disturb the Membrane function of the mushrooms and thus help in the treatment of many fungal infections. Nystatin forms complexes with the sterols (membrane lipids) of the membrane, which create pores in the membrane. Through these pores, or channels, can Ions (charged particles) from inside the mushroom cell pour out. Due to the loss of ions (especially positively charged particles, i.e. cations) and the impaired function of the membrane, the Mushroom metabolism is hampered. Nystatin thus has a fungicidal effect, it initially inhibits further fungal growth and the fungi ultimately die. The yeasts are particularly sensitive to nystatin, however, it must be ensured that the yeasts still respond to nystatin. Because the yeast can Resistances that prevent nystatin from binding to the yeast and unfolding its effects.
Side effects of nystatin
The side effects of nystatin are minor when given topically or orally. When applied locally in the form of creams, it is possible that hypersensitivity reactions to nystatin may occur. Occasionally there will be a rash with itching and wheals.
Allergic reactions to nystatin are rather rare, but can be very fulminant. Severe allergic reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, which is absolutely life-threatening, have been observed. If allergic reactions to nystatin or similar active substances such as amphotericin or natamycin have previously occurred, nystatin should not be used.
Nystatin is also given orally, i.e. by mouth. The side effects in this case are also minor, because nystatin cannot be absorbed through the mucous membranes and therefore does not have a systemic effect. In this case, the side effects are limited to the gastrointestinal tract. Very high doses can lead to loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In general, however, nystatin is a well-tolerated active ingredient with rarely occurring side effects that can even be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Nystatin as a cream
Nystatin as a cream is used for fungal infections on the surface of the skin. Fungal infections on the hands and feet or on the nails are widely known. But larger areas of skin can also be affected by fungal infections. For these cases there are nystatin creams or ointments that can be applied to the affected areas. Particular care should be taken in the Genital and anus area apply because the nystatin ointment is not for use on mucous membranes suitable. Exist for the vaginal area special vaginal ointmentsthat on the external genital area be applied. Fungal infections, which are not only confined to the outer vaginal area, but can also be found inside the vagina, will be with Vaginal tablets treated. These are inserted into the vagina and dissolve there. As a rule, these preparations are available from pharmacies without a prescription.
A popular cream containing nystatin is the Multilind® healing ointment. Read more here Multilind®.
Creams are applied to the infected area two to four times a day. In sick children with diapers, the cream should be applied before changing. Fungal infections in the vaginal area are treated once or twice a day, depending on the extent, cream and vaginal tablets mutually support each other in their effectiveness. However, a visit to the doctor is still helpful to identify the pathogen's doctor and to avoid unnecessary or ineffective therapy. A doctor should be consulted, especially in the case of fungal infections in the genital area.
Nystatin as a mouthwash
The Nystatin mouthwash is used to treat fungal infections in the mouth. Oral thrush (Infection of the mouth and throat with Candida albicans) occurs mainly in patients who have one chemotherapy undergo.
The mouth should be rinsed extensively with the nystatin solution or suspension after each meal in order to remove the fungi from the oral cavity. Care should be taken to keep the solution in the mouth longer and not to swallow it immediately. So the solution can get into every corner of the mouth and reach the fungal spores everywhere. The solution can then be swallowed and is no longer harmful to the body. The swallowed mouthwash can even help with that Treat esophagus with and harm the yeasts that live there. Usually it takes Therapy for up to four weeks. In severe individual cases, it may be necessary to continue the therapy for longer.
Nystatin in the form of lozenges
The therapy with the mouthwash is supplemented with the lozenges. The digestive tract begins with the mouth and ends with the intestines. All stations of this digestive tract should be reached in order to completely eliminate the fungal infection. The fungal infection in the oral cavity and esophagus is treated by rinsing thoroughly with the nystatin solution.
To reach the gastrointestinal tract, the tablets are suitable, which are taken three times a day for a week (2 tablets 3 times a day). In the further course the dose is then reduced to one tablet three times a day. This therapy should also be carried out for a total of 4 weeks. It is advisable to carry out the therapy under the supervision of a doctor who can assess and monitor the progress of the therapy in order to prevent complications and further spread.