Salbutamol is a drug that belongs to the group of beta2 sympathomimetics or beta2 receptor agonists. It leads to the relaxation of the smooth muscles as occurs in the bronchial system. Salbutamol is therefore used in diseases that are associated with a narrowing of the airways and is known as a bronchospasmolytic or bronchodilator. These diseases include in particular bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis (COPD). It is mainly used by inhalation, its effect begins very quickly and lasts for about 4-6 hours. Salbutamol is on the doping list because of its airway-widening and probably also anabolic properties. Only athletes with proven bronchial asthma or similar diseases are allowed to inhale the drug during the competition.
With the introduction of the Bronchodilators was a drug found that relatively specific to beta2 receptors on the smooth muscles and hardly on beta1 receptors Heart worked. Even so, drugs like Salbutamol Have side effects at heart. It can increase the Heart rate (Tachycardia), this increases the oxygen consumption of the heart. Especially in patients with cardiac stress this can lead to so-called Attacks of angina pectoris with a print on the chest and shortness of breath to lead. Furthermore, therapy with salbutamol can cause central nervous symptoms such as restlessness, nervousness and tremor of the hands occur. Other possible side effects are a headache, dizziness, Palpitations (Palpitations), Nausea, sweating, Muscle spasms as well as a taste disorder. Also an increase in blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a decrease in blood sugar Potassium level (Hypokalemia) in the blood can occur. The latter carries the risk of triggering Cardiac arrhythmias. Very rarely does it happen Hallucinations and psychosis. It should be noted that even when taking a therapeutic dose, the ability to react may be restricted, so that active participation in road traffic and the use of machines is no longer possible without risk.
Simultaneous therapy with Salbutamol and Medication from the group of beta blockers leads to a mutual weakening of the effect. It should also be noted that Beta blockers in patients with asthma and COPD should generally only be used with great caution, as this can lead to a critical narrowing of the airways. Treatment with salbutamol may reduce the blood sugar lowering effects of Antidiabetic drugs in patients with a Diabetes mellitus be weakened, a dose adjustment may then have to be made. However, there is a particular risk with high-dose therapy or systemic treatment with salbutamol in tablet form or intravenous.
The risk of the above-mentioned adverse effects is increased with simultaneous therapy with salbutamol and other sympathomimetics such as adrenaline as well as with simultaneous therapy with Theophylline, the thyroid hormone L-thyroxine, Antiarrhythmic drugs used to treat Cardiac arrhythmias, Cardiac glycosides like Digitoxin as well as from the group of psychotropic drugs MAO inhibitors (e.g. Tranylcypromine) and tricyclic antidepressants (e.g. Amitriptyline). Also a combination with alcohol can increase the risk of side effects. A simultaneous treatment with ergotamines for the therapy of a migraine should be done carefully, as it is both critical extension (Vasodilation) as well as Narrowing (Vasoconstriction) from Blood vessels can lead. With an upcoming anesthesia With halogenated hydrocarbons, such as halothane or enflurane, the intake of salbutamol should be paused in good time and the doctor informed about the intake, otherwise it will be dangerous Cardiac arrhythmias can come.
To Acute treatment of suddenly occurring Shortness of breath are usually 0.1 mg Salbutamol inhaled. If the occurrence of such shortness of breath is predictable, for example in patients with asthmathat through exertion or Allergens If possible, this single dose should be taken 10-15 minutes before exposure. If the shortness of breath does not cease within 5-10 minutes after a single dose, another single dose can be taken. If this still does not lead to improvement, another single dose can be inhaled, but in this case one should doctor be consulted.
As part of a Long-term therapy with salbutamol at bronchial asthma From level 2, 1-2 single doses can be taken 3-4 times a day, depending on the doctor's prescription. With such a long-term therapy, a anti-inflammatory corticosteroid be used as part of therapy. The daily dose of salbutamol should not exceed 1 mg, i.e. 10 single doses of 0.1 mg each.
Application / indications
Salbutamol is primarily used as one of the most important drugs in the therapy of bronchial asthma. It is also used in the treatment of chronic obstructive bronchitis (COPD), but only in later stages of the disease.
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Salbutamol must not be taken if someone is already familiar Hypersensitivity against the active ingredient, in a severe Hyperthyroidism (Hyperthyroidism), in the case of a tumor in the adrenal gland called Pheochromocytoma, with a previously known Aneurysm as well as severe heart disease. This includes a fresh one Heart attack, a heavy one coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, and tachycardia Cardiac arrhythmias. Further contraindications to the use of salbutamol are severe and untreatable high blood pressure (hypertension) and treatment with cardiac glycosides such as digitoxin. Therapy should be carried out with caution in one Diabetes mellitus (Diabetes) that is inadequately controlled and in patients with a pre-existing too low Potassium levels (Hypokalemia) in blood.
The use of salbutamol should be carefully weighed during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as it enters the child's blood via the placenta and into the breast milk child's organism can pass. Just before and during the birth The use of salbutamol should be avoided in any case, as it can have a labor-inhibiting effect and thus inhibit the birth process.
As there are numerous different preparations containing the active ingredient Salbutamol is available on the market as a spray for inhalation, here is an example of a preparation with its costs: A Salbu Easyhaler® Powder inhaler with a single dose of 0.1 mg and an amount of at least 200 single doses costs € 15.54 on a private prescription. When a receipt is presented 5 euros Prescription fee.