Increase in the second blood pressure value
The blood pressure is always given in two values, the systolic (1st value) and the diastolic Value (2nd value); e.g. 120/80 mmHg. mmHg is the unit in which blood pressure is given and means millimeters of mercury. The systolic pressure is caused by the contraction of the heart. The diastolic blood pressure is, so to speak, the base pressure below which the heart chambers refill with blood. It should not exceed 80-89 mmHg.
In most cases of high blood pressure, both values are too high. But in some cases the diastolic, second blood pressure value in particular is too high. One speaks of isolated diastolic hypertension (hypertension = high blood pressure). It is much rarer than the common systolic high blood pressure, but it can still cause severe damage, especially to the heart. In addition, there is often an illness elsewhere behind an increase in the second blood pressure value. Appropriate treatment should always be given once the diagnosis has been made in order to avoid progression of the disease and consequential damage.
How dangerous is that
Patients whose second blood pressure value is too high asks the question: "How dangerous is that?" This question is difficult to answer in general. How dangerous isolated diastolic hypertension is depends on the severity of the increase in blood pressure and the accompanying illnesses of the person concerned. However, everyone should be treated for high blood pressure. This applies to both classic and diastolic hypertension. The ones that should not be underestimated are particularly dangerous Long-term consequences from high blood pressure. High blood pressure damages many organs in the long term. This affects the kidneys, and the retina in the eye can also be damaged. In addition, the risk of a stroke increases. If the second blood pressure value is too high, the heart is particularly affected. In contrast to all other organs, blood flow to the heart does not occur during the contraction of the heart, but afterwards in the filling phase. In this phase the diastolic blood pressure prevails, which is indicated with the second blood pressure value. If this is too high, the coronary arteries can be damaged. As the disease progresses, the risk of a heart attack and chronic heart failure is increased.
What is the normal value?
The second blood pressure value is the so-called diastolic blood pressure value. This should be around 80 mmHg for adults. An increase in diastolic blood pressure is referred to as a pressure of 100 mmHg or more in combination with a systolic (first) blood pressure value of over 140 mmHg. From a value of 120 mmHg, the second value is considered to be elevated regardless of the first value, which is referred to as malignant hypertension (high blood pressure). Different blood pressure values are used as a basis for children, depending on their age. Up to about 10 years of age, diastolic blood pressure should be below 70 to 80 mmHg. Between the ages of 15 and 18, blood pressure has reached that of adults; the normal diastolic value is now 80 mmHg.
The reasons why the second blood pressure value alone is too high are diverse and are still being researched. It is assumed that in the context of classic high blood pressure, in some cases only the second blood pressure value is too high. The general causes of hypertension are then responsible. Blood pressure is primarily determined by two things: first, the amount of blood that circulates in the body and that the heart pumps through the vessels; Second, the diameter and elasticity of the blood vessels themselves. The vessels can be damaged by a wide variety of causes. The most important causes of high blood pressure in this context are e.g. Smoking, being overweight, sedentary lifestyle and poor nutrition.
What they all have in common is that they have harmful effects on the blood vessels. Cigarette smoke and high blood lipid levels cause blood vessels to constrict. This is caused by deposits of fats and dead cells in the vessel wall. The lack of physical activity supports this effect. In addition, without exercise, the circulatory system is not trained enough and blood pressure levels rise. Above all, the narrowness of the peripheral vessels ensures that the second blood pressure value is too high. In addition to these externally influencing factors, various basic diseases are also among the causes of a high second blood pressure value. It could be shown that the isolated increase in the second blood pressure value is often a disease of the thyroid gland. For example, a second blood pressure value that is too high is associated with an underactive thyroid. This should be taken into account when making the diagnosis. Vascular diseases can also lead to an isolated increase in the second blood pressure value. Renal artery stenosis should be mentioned here in particular. The blood supply to the kidney is reduced, so that it reacts by increasing blood pressure. In rare cases, a hormone-producing tumor is responsible for the high blood pressure. This Pheochromocytoma called tumor releases adrenaline. This narrows the vessels and increases the pressure. The latter are rare causes. Usually the increased second blood pressure value is followed by the increase in the first.
Thyroid disease as the cause of an elevated second blood pressure reading
The thyroid gland usually increases blood pressure when there is an overactive condition. This increases the heart rate and blood pressure, and those affected sweat more. The metabolism is also stimulated, so that more energy is consumed by the body and weight loss is frequent. The causes of an overactive thyroid can be found in small nodes in the thyroid gland, which become independent and produce more thyroid hormones. These processes can be both benign and malicious.
Further information on this topic can be found at: Hyperthyroidism
If the second blood pressure value is too high, there are various treatment options available. First you try to lower your blood pressure without medication. The focus here is on optimizing one's lifestyle. It is recommended that you take part in endurance sports regularly and that you eat a healthy, low-fat diet. This can reduce excess weight and blood lipids.
Smokers are strongly advised to give up smoking. Other underlying diseases, especially any diabetes mellitus, should also be well controlled. If the second blood pressure value is still too high during this treatment, medication should be initiated. There are different groups of drugs. So-called ACE inhibitors, beta blockers or diuretics (“water tablets”) are usually used. Every drug has advantages and disadvantages. An isolated increase in the second blood pressure value has shown that the beta blocker Nebivolol works particularly well. It reduces the performance of the heart and at the same time leads to a widening of the blood vessels, so that the second blood pressure value drops. However, other substances from the groups mentioned above can also effectively lower blood pressure. If there is an underlying disease, this must of course also be included in the therapy. In this context, the treatment of a reduced thyroid function with thyroid hormones is important for the second blood pressure value. The therapy must be adjusted individually for each patient according to the type and extent of the symptoms.
When do I need treatment?
There are relatively clear recommendations as to when treatment should begin. As with the first, there are also limit values for the second blood pressure value. The limit from which the second blood pressure value is too high is at > 90 mmHg set. If an increase in the second value has been diagnosed with certainty, treatment must be given. The type of treatment, however, always depends on the severity of the symptoms and the level of the blood pressure value. If the increases are only slight, you can wait and observe for a short time before further measures are taken. In addition to the orientation on measured values, there are further criteria as to when treatment is required. Treatment must be initiated if symptoms such as physical weakness or deterioration in performance are present. Even if you notice structural changes in the heart, this is the case. Particular attention is paid to the coronary arteries. It is extremely important to initiate treatment before damage occurs.
Home remedies for high blood pressure come in many forms and variants. First of all, a lot of exercise in the fresh air has a positive effect on the second (and of course on the first) blood pressure. Diet also plays an important role (high in fiber and low in salt). Means such as a liter of mint tea a day also help for several weeks. Black seed oil can also lower the second blood pressure value. Garlic also has a positive effect on blood pressure, and the consumption of garlic causes a slight thinning of the blood. Caution is required if there is a special tendency to clot or if there is already therapy with blood thinners.
Homeopathy also knows many remedies against high blood pressure, but the effect of homeopathic remedies is controversial. If the blood pressure of an affected person rises to the head, i.e. causes dizziness and headaches, Aurum metallicum can be used against the symptoms. If ringing in the ears and nosebleeds also occur due to the increased second blood pressure value, you can consume arnica. In addition, Viscum album and Plumbum metallicum are frequently used homeopathic remedies for high blood pressure. As a rule, all of these agents affect both the first and second blood pressure values.
You might also be interested in this topic: Homeopathy for high blood pressure
The first blood pressure value is also increased
In most cases of high blood pressure, both the second and the first blood pressure value are too high. It is then the classic high blood pressure. The first blood pressure value should ideally be 120 mmHg. By definition, values of more than 140 mmHg are referred to as high blood pressure. As with only the second value, the main causes are obesity, unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol and an unhealthy lifestyle overall. The first blood pressure value also increases with age. However, often no exact cause can be found. If the first blood pressure value is also too high, adequate treatment should be initiated. Even more than an increase in the second value, a permanent increase in the first blood pressure value causes long-term damage. It usually takes years before the first signs of this appear. Long-term treatment, even without symptoms, is extremely important to avoid this long-term damage. As in the treatment of diastolic hypertension, ACE inhibitors, drainage tablets and beta blockers are available.
Read more on this topic at: The first blood pressure value is increased
Increased second blood pressure value during pregnancy
Many different blood pressure-associated pregnancy diseases can occur during pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (blood pressure that is triggered by pregnancy) is referred to as a second blood pressure value of 90 mmHg. A severe increase is present from 110 mmHg diastolic. If protein is also excreted in the urine, this is known as preeclampsia. The resulting eclampsia and HELLP syndrome can be associated with serious complications for both mother and child.
Also read our topic: Pregnancy Hypertension - Is It Dangerous?
High blood pressure usually persists for a long time without the person concerned noticing it. Many thousands of people in Germany live with high blood pressure without even knowing it.
Symptoms usually only appear with advanced high blood pressure. The most common symptoms include:
- Morning headache
- Dizziness (see also Dizziness and circulation)
- Chest pain (see causes of chest pain)
- Reddening of the skin of the face
- Palpitations (see causes of palpitations)
- Nosebleeds (see causes of nosebleeds)
- Bleeding gums
- Shortness of breath
Diagnosing high blood pressure involves several things. Often it is a matter of chance diagnoses that are made as part of routine controls. The diagnosis is based on whether the second blood pressure value is too high Blood pressure measurement. Individual measurements are usually not sufficient. This is how long-term blood pressure measurement is used, e.g. over 24h. This can be accompanied by a measurement of the heart's action (EKG). This shows the only increase in the second blood pressure value. The optimal value is 80 mmHg. A second blood pressure value between 80 and 90mmHg is still normal. 90-100 mmHg means slight diastolic hypertension, between 100-110 mmHg this is moderate. Severe diastolic hypertension is present from values above. If the second blood pressure value is above 120 mmHg, one speaks of a malignant hypertensionwhich can be associated with significant physical damage. In addition to measuring blood pressure, blood tests, heart function tests and possibly computed tomography are used to identify the causes. An extensive survey of lifestyle habits and circumstances also helps. Physical activity, diet and the question of nicotine and alcohol consumption are of particular interest.