Medical: Vesica urinaria

Bladder, urinary bladder infection, cystitis, cystitis

English: bladder


The urinary bladder is located in the pelvis. At the upper end, also the apex of the bladder (Apex vesicae), and behind it is in the immediate vicinity of the abdominal cavity with the intestines, from which it is only through the thin peritoneum (peritoneum) is separated.

Illustration of the urinary bladder

Figure ureter: A - cross section in relaxed state and B - retroperitoneal space with ureters (red)
  1. Ureter - Ureter
  2. Transitional epithelium - Urothelium
  3. Shift layer of the
    Mucous membrane - Lamina propria
  4. Inner longitudinal layer -
    Stratum longitudinal internum
  5. Outer longitudinal layer -
    Stratum longitudinal externum
  6. Middle ring layer -
    Circular stratum
  7. Connective tissue covering with
    Blood vessels - Tunica adventitia
  8. Aortic fork - Aortic bifurcation
  9. Rectum - Rectum
  10. Urinary bladder - Vesica urinaria
  11. Adrenal gland -
    Suprarenal gland
  12. Right kidney - Ren dexter
  13. Renal pelvis - Pelvis renalis
  14. Lower vena cava - Inferior vena cava

You can find an overview of all Dr-Gumpert images at: medical illustrations

In women, the bladder closes in the back of the pelvis uterus (uterus) and with the man the rectum (rectum) at.
One can see the top or the Parting (Apex vesicae) of the Bladder body (C.orpus vesicae), the Urinary bladder base (Fundus vesicae) and the Bladder neck (Collum / cervix vesicae) differ.
The two end in the body of the bladder ureter (Ureter) that connect the kidney pose with the bubble.
The bladder neck represents the Transition to urethra (urethra) represent the urine transported to the outside and forms the exit of the urinary bladder.

Illustration prostate and bladder

Cross section through the bladder and underlying prostate:

  1. bladder
  2. urethra
  3. prostate
  4. Seed mound with the two openings of the spray tubules
  5. Excretory ducts of the prostate

Functions of the urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ, which lies in the pelvic area and, depending on body size, between Hold 500-1000 ml of liquid can. When unfilled, it is strongly compressed by the surrounding abdominal organs.
Your main job is that Hold and the Storing urine, the so-called Continence, as well as the regulated transport of urine to the outside. When the storage volume of 500 - 1000 ml is reached, urine can be released in a controlled manner (micturition).
Due to its structure, the urine usually not against the direction of flow towards the kidneys rising up. So are the kidneys Protected from rising pathogenswhich otherwise rise as part of a bladder infection and could cause inflammation of the kidney pelvis. Secure this muscular occlusive apparatus which are located at the confluence of the ureters in the bladder.

Read on under: Cystitis and Pelvic inflammation


The urine is stored in the urinary bladder

The urinary bladder stores the urine that the kidneys produce via the ureter (Ureter) is forwarded. On each side a ureter opens into the lower part of the urinary bladder.
Since the ureters run obliquely through the wall, the muscles in the wall compress them, preventing the urine from flowing back (reflux) if nothing flows out of the kidney from above.
When the urinary bladder has reached a certain level of filling, the muscles in the bladder wall contract and the contents are transported out through the urethra.

There are several ways to ensure that the bladder is tight during storage Locking mechanisms. On the one hand the inner closure (Sphincter), which is located directly at the urinary bladder outlet and from opposing muscle loops of the pelvic floor is formed. This closure opens with increasing pressure in the bladder and can not arbitrarily influenced become. On the other hand, there is one external occlusion in the middle part of the urethra (urethra), the arbitrarily tense can be.
From a filling of about 200 ml occurs Urge to urinate which becomes very strong from 400 ml. The bladder can hold a total of 600-1000 ml. Since the size of the bladder varies greatly with the filling, the Mucous membranelining the inside (Tunica mucosae), in the empty state in folds. As the filling increases, these disappear. In addition, the spherical cells of the mucous membrane (cover cells) can flatten out when filled and create more space for expansion and thus the urine. The Prevent cover cells also that the aggressive urine damages the urinary bladder.

The Emptying the bladder happens through one reflexwho dated brain which information about the filling status of the bladder of nerve fibers from the Spinal cord receives.
Usually this reflex is suppressed until there is a favorable opportunity to evacuate, that is, the Emptying controlled arbitrarily can be.

Urinary bladder lining under the microscope

Without filling, the mucous membrane lies in folds, with increasing bladder filling the surface becomes smooth.


The Urinary bladder infection, also Cystitis called, is a problem that especially women know. Symptoms are frequent need to urinate and Pain or burning sensation when urinating. These occur because the bladder wall is inflamed and therefore reacts particularly sensitively to even small quantities. The inflammation is classically through endogenous intestinal bacteria triggered that ended up in the wrong place. Unfortunately, this happens quickly, especially with women, because the anus and vagina are close together and the path to the bladder for the bacteria is only short due to the short urethra. Often also play Factors, how mechanical irritation (for example through sexual intercourse), cold or a weakened immune system a role. Protective, as well as to get rid of the cystitis as quickly as possible, it is important to pay attention to these factors.

Read on under: Pain and Burning sensation when urinating

In the treatment are warmth, recreation and a large amount of drinkingessential to flush bacteria out of the bladder. Certain ones can also have a positive effect Herbal teas (for example bearberry leaves) or acidic foods like Cranberriesacidifying the urine. If you don't like the bitter bubble teas, you can too alternatively capsules take from the pharmacy, which contain the herbs in concentrated form and take them with plenty of water. The effect of the natural means is based on the Inhibition of bacterial growth by the acid and the contained herbal ingredients.

More information at: Homeopathy for cystitis

If these natural remedies are not sufficient, one can antibiotic can be resorted to that the bacteria fights quickly. Most of time disappear the Pain then already after 1-2 days the Antibiotic therapy. However, the antibiotic alone is not sufficient. Nevertheless, it is important to drink a large amount so that the cystitis does not return after a short time.

Anyone prone to bladder infections should Always drink enough as a preventive measure and also hygienic rules to prevent bacteria from entering the bladder. For example, it is advisable to urinate immediately after sexual intercourse or to shower after using the toilet if you have a bladder infection.

Suffers a man a bladder infection should be the cause always immediately from a doctor to be clarified.

Urinary bladder burst

It still holds up myth, that the bladder through to long holding of urine burst might, persistent. Before that happens, it literally overflows.
The bladder owns Strain sensorswho already irritated from a filling quantity of approx. 250 - 500 ml be and the brain Urge to urinate convey. If the urine continues to be kept because there is no toilet nearby, the first thing to happen is Urine build-up in the direction of the kidneywhich can cause back pain. If the urine continues to be adhered to, in the worst case scenario, it will lead to wetting. There urine leaks out of control, because the strength of the sphincter is no longer sufficient to stop against the increased pressure caused by the excessive filling. While this is uncomfortable, it is a important protective mechanism of the body that Tearing of the urinary bladder prevented.

Find out more about the topic Urinary incontinence

In certain cases this Protective mechanism does not worksince the Drain through the urethra, for example through an enlarged prostate constricted is. But even in this case the urinary bladder does not burst because of the great painthat causes such overstretching of the urinary bladder doctor is visited. This can Urinary obstruction with a Treat urinary catheters and the To drain urine.

A Burst or tear the urinary bladder, the so-called Urinary bladder rupture, only comes in Connection with accidents in front. If, for example, external force acts on the filled bladder in a traffic accident, the bladder can be injured. Symptoms of it are strong urge to urinate without being able to empty the bladder. The bladder must then surgically closed again become.

Find out more at: Bladder tear

Urinary bladder pain

There are various causes for pain in the area of ​​the urinary bladder, such as overstretching, cystitis, but also cancer.

The first possible cause is overstretching from holding urine for too long. Even after urinating, the bladder can still hurt for a while because the overstretched muscle is still irritated. This pain is not a disease, but should only be provoked in exceptional situations, as chronic overexpansion of the bladder can be harmful.
The second classic cause is cystitis. This causes cramp-like pain and a burning sensation, especially when urinating.

A rarer cause is urinary retention, a urinary outflow disorder that occurs especially when the prostate is enlarged.
Bladder stones can also cause cramping pain if they obstruct the drain. Ureter stones, on the other hand, tend to cause colic-like pain that radiate widely and do not affect the bladder in isolation.

Other causes are infections in the genital area or the adjacent organs. In women, endometriosis can also be behind the pain. Endometriosis is the term used to describe the presence of uterine lining in the wrong place, for example on the bladder. The pain then occurs depending on the cycle.

In addition to these benign causes, long-lasting pain should also consider a malignant cause such as bladder cancer. Long-lasting bladder pain or the admixture of blood in the urine therefore always require a medical examination.

Find out more at: Blood in the urine