Side effects of procaine
Procaine is a local anesthetic for local anesthesia. It is short-acting and only works where it is placed under the skin.
Normally, with correct application, there are no side effects.
The only side effect that can occur with proper application is an allergic reaction in the event of hypersensitivity to procaine or other ingredients.
Further information on the areas of application of procaine and its mode of action can be found under the article: Procaine syringe, procaine-base infusion
Side effects can occur if the active ingredient is not administered properly. This occurs, for example, in the event of accidental intravenous injection, such as a need to react quickly in an emergency. This can lead to side effects in the central nervous system or the cardiovascular system.
What side effects can procaine cause?
Side effects can primarily occur in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the cardiovascular system.
These are the most important side effects as they can be very dangerous and require quick countermeasures.
If procaine is administered intravenously, it can lead to the CNS Lowering the seizure threshold to lead. This means that these patients can start cramping faster.
Furthermore, sensory disturbances around the mouth area, slurred speech, visual disturbances or, in the worst case, respiratory arrest and coma can occur.
The side effects of the cardiovascular system include a decrease in cardiac strength, heart rate, and electrical conduction. In the extreme case of a blockage of the cardiac excitation, it may be necessary to perform resuscitation. and is usually subject to resuscitation.
Furthermore, it can lead to an expansion of the blood vessels, resulting in a so-called Flush (Reddening of the skin with hot flashes) and in the further course leads to the escape of fluid into the intercellular space.
In extreme cases, the expansion of the blood vessels can lead to shock.
Read more on the subject at: Side effects of local anesthetics
Hives is a skin reaction that is mostly caused by allergies.
These are wheals that appear on the skin and can persist for a few hours to weeks. There is also severe itching.
Hives can be caused by an allergic reaction to procaine. This leads to the formation of wheals in the region where the drug was injected.
If these side effects occur, you should switch to another local anesthetic, but the skin reaction alone is not dangerous or life-threatening.
Read more about this at: Hives
Edema refers to the accumulation of water outside the vessels, i.e. in the so-called intercellular space.
The edema can occur due to a dilatation of the vessels in response to the procaine. This leads to the transfer of fluid from the enlarged vessels into the intercellular space.
This is dangerous in that there is a lack of fluid in the vessels, which can lead to a drop in the circulation.
If edema occurs after treatment with procaine, it should be checked whether the local anesthetic was inadvertently applied to the vessels. Then the supply of the substance should be stopped and countermeasures taken.
Read more on the topic: Causes of Edema
Swelling of the mucous membranes
In the same way as described above, swelling of the mucous membranes can also occur.
This is dangerous in the area of the larynx and the epiglottis, as well as the tongue and the oral mucosa, as these edema can block the airways. This can happen either due to the widened vessels or an allergic reaction to the procaine.
The shortness of breath usually develops through the swelling of the mucous membrane. If the epiglottis, larynx or tongue swell, this can lead to the airways being blocked and normal inhalation no longer possible.
This can be counteracted with drugs such as adrenaline or histamine blockers. If this doesn't help, you have to Cricothyrotomy (Larynx incision) should be considered.
Itching can occur when using procaine. This can either be caused by an allergic skin reaction with hives, or there is local vasodilation. This leads to local redness and can also lead to itching.
Cardiac arrhythmias are a dangerous and serious side effect of all local anesthetics.
This can happen if the active ingredient is accidentally injected intravenously instead of under the skin.
The active substance reaches the heart through the veins. Here there is a disturbance of the heart's excitation so that the heart beats slower and weaker.
If this disturbance of the cardiac excitation is very pronounced, resuscitation may be necessary.
In addition, AV block ° 3 can occur, which corresponds to a functional cardiac arrest. The heart rate drops to 20 beats per minute. Resuscitation is usually required with an AV block ° 3.
Discomfort in the mouth area
If procaine is given through a vein, it can also cause abnormal sensations in the mouth area.
This is because the nerves around the mouth are blocked, causing tingling and other abnormal sensations.
An allergic reaction can also cause discomfort.
Dizziness is another symptom of procaine overdose or misapplication.
It is a consequence of the side effects that affect the CNS and occurs when too much procaine floods the CNS. Again, this is a serious side effect of a local anesthetic. If symptoms of dizziness should also be checked to see if the drug has been accidentally injected into the vein and consumption should be stopped immediately. Dizziness is a warning symptom here.
Usually, procaine does not cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Therefore, stomach pain is not a typical side effect of procaine.