Causes of the borderline syndrome
Borderline syndrome is a mental disorder that often occurs for the first time between puberty and young adulthood.
The most common and strongest symptoms are impaired emotional control, impaired self-image, difficult and often unstable relationships with other people and impulsive behavior, as well as increased levels of self-harm with no increased intention to commit suicide.
Women are more often affected than men. In extreme cases, all of this can lead to impairment of social and educational or work-oriented functionality. Ultimately, the suicide rate in borderline patients is 50 times higher than in the normal population.
Causes in childhood
As with many psychiatric illnesses, the exact one is Cause of borderline syndrome not yet scientifically proven.
A connection between
- Hereditary material (genetics)
- Environmental factors
- from the average
deviating brain structures.
The genetic material can be in connection with environmental influences Affect regulation influence and cause of a typical behavior pattern of the Borderline syndrome represent.
Affect regulation is the ability of people to control and process unpleasant or negative emotions that are triggered by certain events or experiences or by dealing with them. In the best case, the end result is the incorporation of the emotion into the “self”.
There are also many voices in science who see the beginning of development in the temperament of early childhood. Since personality traits are often inherent in the temperament of early childhood and there is a certain continuity in development, it does not seem far-fetched that temperament plays an important role as a factor in the development of symptoms of personality disorders in adolescence.
Both childhood temperament and developing individual personality traits seem to express the same basic disposition.
The child's temperament shows early individual differences in, among other things, emotional reactions to certain events and self-control of behaviors and reactions that can be important for the development of borderline syndrome. Both of these points are often inappropriate and noticeable in borderline patients - while the ability to control oneself is impaired, emotional reactions are often inappropriate and excessive.
The child's temperament can also be measured by the factors emotionality (showing and feeling feelings), activity, sociability and shyness. Emotionality refers to how easy it is for a child to experience and show negative emotions.
There is a connection to the personality trait of the Neuroticism, so a long-lasting negative mood and a pessimistic worldview. Activity includes children with high energy levels who require a lot of alertness and who prefer fast-paced lifestyles, which in extreme cases can develop into personalities with little or no inhibition.Sociability consists of the desire for social togetherness and recognition.
Children with a high proportion of this factor are often open, cheerful and outward-looking. In contrast, children are who have a high degree of acceptance shyness are interested in social relationships, but often find social interaction stressful and feel uncomfortable and inhibited when dealing with others.
This can also lead to the development of a neurotic personality trait contribute. Various studies have shown a connection between personality traits that appear in childhood and temperament characteristics and those that appear later Symptoms of borderline, however, there is no conclusive and conclusive evidence. Rather, various inconsistencies occur, which, however, may also be due to the non-uniform process and evaluation technology of the studies. Nevertheless, the factors mentioned above can predict the development and course of borderline symptoms in adolescence. Basically, it can be assumed that the borderline syndrome develops on the basis of established personality structures and traumatic events experienced in childhood or an interplay of both.
Trauma seems to be the most conclusive cause of borderline syndrome.
Traumatic experiences can have such a strong influence on the psyche that it is easy to imagine that these events will continue to have an effect on the people concerned for a long time to come. Such trauma may have been extreme fear or helplessness, such as are typical of experiences of abuse or life-threatening situations. In addition, there is the inability to process them.
As a result, there are various events and environmental influences in childhood that are called Risk factors apply and develop a Borderline syndrome can favor.
The correct learning of Affect control to be. Children who are forbidden to act out feelings during childhood or who, on the contrary, learn to give in to every little change of feeling are more susceptible to the impulsive symptoms of the Borderline syndrome. On the contrary, if the children learn appropriate coping strategies, this not only helps them enormously in their further lives, but can also have a preventative effect with regard to the borderline syndrome and other mental disorders.
Emotional or physical stress can also have a negative effect on the development of healthy affect control if the child does not learn appropriate coping strategies. Major life events such as the Divorce of the parents or the loss of a close relative can often overwhelm children.
If the family does not help the child to process these experiences, trauma can develop that can hinder the child's healthy development.
Lack of family support and emotional coldness and distance from parents or similarly important caregivers can negatively affect the development of self-esteem and promote the development of a borderline syndrome.
Linguistic abuse like constantly putting the child down or verbally abusing them can also erode the self-esteem of the person concerned. Also restrictions e.g. The illness of one or both parents can cause the child to feel that they are not being taken seriously and that they constantly have to back off if there is no support.
This has a negative effect on one's own perception of desires and needs and the way in which they are expressed. The resulting difficulties in implementing social behavior, such as behaves appropriately when talking to other people, the development of a personality disorder such as borderline syndrome can lead the way.
When someone prone to Mood swings this can also encourage the development of borderline syndrome if the person concerned does not learn to deal with it.
Cause of psychological and / or physical violence
Another important risk factor is experiencing psychological and / or physical violence. This can also only have been the experience of domestic violence that did not address the person concerned directly, but e.g. Violence between parents remained.
In this context, experiences of abuse should also be mentioned in particular. Both physical and psychological abuse can train a person Borderline syndrome cause or promote development.
Physical abuse was observed in up to 70% of patients Borderline syndrome proven. Others can too Personality disorders occur in addition to a borderline syndrome or favor its development. Personality disorders are deeply rooted and persistent behaviors that manifest themselves as a recurring, unchangeable reaction to changing personal and social situations and life events.
The boundary to normal personality traits is often fluid and can best be determined by the inappropriateness of the experience and behavior pattern. Avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, in particular, occur in connection with borderline syndrome.