Definition / introduction

A PRIND is a type of mini-stroke.

In medicine, the abbreviation PRIND stands for that prolonged reversible ischemic neurological deficit. A PRIND is thus a kind of minor stroke.

A stroke is caused by a decreased blood flow in the brain. If a part of the brain is so damaged that it is no longer reversible, it is called a stroke. If the damage is still reversible, one speaks of one TIA (transient ischemic attack) or one PRIND. The difference between the two is that the symptoms with PRIND develop more slowly than with TIA and also resolve more slowly. In the case of a TIA, the symptoms regress completely after 24 hours at the latest, if the symptoms are still present after the 24 hours, it is called a PRIND. Seen in this way, a PRIND is a mini-stroke that regresses completely, but very slowly. Symptoms can last up to a few weeks.

In the meantime, however, the definitions of a TIA and a PRIND are considered too vague and are therefore no longer differentiated.


The causes of a PRIND are the same as for a stroke and are therefore, like a TIA, seen as a harbinger of a stroke.

A PRIND is caused by a decreased blood flow to the brain. This can have two causes, either the vessel is blocked by a plug or the walls of a vessel in the brain are so strong Plaque proves that the blood can no longer flow properly. If the blood flow is disturbed, there is a reduced blood flow at the point in the brain that is supplied by the blood vessel. Since the blood transports oxygen and nutrients, depending on the strength of the reduced blood flow, brain functions may fail.

This plug usually consists of clotted blood, but it can also consist of fat.

Now clogs a blood plug, too thrombus called a vessel in the brain, the cause is usually not in the brain, but somewhere else. The blood plug is mostly formed in the legs or in the heart and “flies” through the body towards the brain. However, the vessels in the brain are so small that the plug often gets stuck there and cannot simply pass through as in the other vessels. Risk factors for the formation of such a blood clot are:

  • higher Blood pressure

  • Coagulation disorders (mostly hereditary)

  • pregnancy

  • Varicose veins

  • long bed rest or long car / bus journeys

  • Atrial fibrillation (a Cardiac arrhythmia)

As already mentioned, plaque can also form on the vessels in the brain. The main risk factors for plaque build-up are:

  • diabetes

  • high blood pressure

  • high levels of fat in the blood

  • obesity

  • Sedentary lifestyle


At the beginning of every diagnosis there is a consultation with a doctor. The doctor asks about the symptoms and thus forms an initial opinion of the clinical pictures that come into question. If the doctor now suspects a PRIND, an imaging of the head is usually done. It will also look for the cause of the mini-stroke. Thus, for example, the carotid arteries are monitored for changes using a Ultrasound device watched. The heart is also examined. The doctor can listen to it with the help of a stethoscope and a EKG write to see if it hits regularly. He can also do an ultrasound / X-ray examination cause from the heart. Furthermore, blood pressure is measured and blood is drawn to determine blood lipid levels and to identify possible blood clotting disorders. All possible risk factors are checked out in order to be able to treat the causes after the diagnosis.


Symptoms are similar to those of a stroke, but they regress. The main symptoms include:

  • Numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in any part of the body such as the arm, leg, or face

  • Blurred vision or short-term blindness in one eye

  • slurred speech

  • Fainting or falling without fainting

  • confusion

  • Paralysis

  • dizziness

These symptoms can speak for other diseases as well. They can also occur with migraines or anemia, for example. Nevertheless, it is of the utmost importance that a doctor is consulted immediately if such symptoms occur. In the event of such symptoms, a stroke or mini-stroke must always be ruled out first, as the patient could otherwise suffer permanent damage.

Also read the article: Symptoms of a stroke and Dizziness after a stroke.


Since the symptoms resolve on their own, the main focus is on treating the risk factors. If symptoms such as paralysis persist for a few weeks, for example a physical therapy to be useful.

The most important thing, however, is to prevent a real stroke from developing after the PRIND. If a PRIND is diagnosed, the chances of having a stroke within a week are quite high. Therefore, the cause of the stroke must be treated immediately.

The cause thus determines the therapy. If the cause is a blood clot formation, the renewed formation of such a clot must be prevented.

As already described above, the risk factors include: high blood pressure, pregnancy, coagulation disorders, cardiac arrhythmias, varicose veins, diabetes, obesity and high blood lipid levels.

The high blood pressure is mostly medicinal treated. Nowadays there are a number of medications available for this purpose; they can also be prescribed for only slightly or not elevated blood pressures. An optimal value is 120/80. Lifestyle changes are also important to keep blood pressure low.

Coagulation disorders can also be treated with drugs, which is usually a well-known representative here Marcumar or that aspirin.

diabetes, also popularly known as "diabetes", obesity and also high blood lipid levels could sometimes be treated by lifestyle changes alone. However, drugs are only used after a PRIND, as they work faster and are easier to use.

If the carotid arteries are covered with a lot of plaque, there is a risk that the plaque will detach and “fly” into the brain, clogging the vessels there and thus triggering a PRIND. Therefore, if there is a large amount of plaque in the carotid arteries, surgery may be necessary. The carotid arteries are cut open and the plaque is removed.

Despite the many drug treatment options, it's important to make lifestyle changes as well to reduce your risk of stroke. Sport, for example, is a panacea. Regular exercise can improve or sometimes even cure many illnesses. These include conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and high blood fat levels. These, in turn, are the main causes of mini-strokes. In the beginning it is enough to walk for half an hour a day and slowly increase this. Diet also plays a very important role in the development of diseases. Fatty or high-sugar foods encourage plaque build-up and all of the above-mentioned risk factors. Smoking is another reason for vascular changes and thus also for PRIND.


Prophylaxis consists in eliminating risk factors. This includes exercise, a healthy diet, and abstaining from alcohol and smoking. If diseases such as diabetes or high blood pressure are already known, the doctor may have to stop them with medication. Therefore, regular visits to the doctor and the regular use of the prescribed medication are also very important.

You can read more helpful information on this topic under Stroke in the eye.