Causes of Vomiting


Vomit can have many causes. On the one hand, it can be used as a Protective function the body of possible toxins, such as excessive Medication intake or spoiled food, liberate or respond to various Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract be concerned.

You can find a lot of general information about this topic on our main page: Vomit

Possible causes of vomiting are

  • Noxa / toxins as causes: Substances with a harmful effect on the body often cause vomiting. Vomiting is therefore a protective function of the body
  • Toxins / drugs: due to chemical influences in the stomach and intestines through excessive alcohol consumption or consumption of spoiled food
  • chemotherapy
    by the group of drugs used ("cytostatics")
  • Mechanical influences
    vomiting is triggered by overstretching the stomach with excessive food consumption
  • Mechanical irritation of the mouth and throat
    as a protective function against swallowing bulky bodies
  • Gastrointestinal diseases
    Inflammation of the stomach (gastritis), liver (hepatitis), gallbladder (Cholecystitis), the pancreas (Pancreatitis), Appendicitis (Apendicitis), Obstruction in the stomach or intestines (stenosis)
  • Movement stimuli via the organ of equilibrium
    from motion sickness (Kinetosis), triggered by three-dimensional travel movement, e.g. on a ship, or inconsistency between visual impression and vestibular sensation, e.g. in an airplane; also due to Meniere's disease or inflammation of the equilibrium nerve (Vestibular nervevomiting is induced
  • Hormonal stimuli during pregnancy as causes
    rapid increase in estrogen production leads to irritation of the "vomiting center"
    Read more about this at: Vomiting during pregnancy
  • Postoperative nausea and vomiting after anesthesia
  • Increased intracranial pressure
    through volume expansion at the expense of the cerebral fluid spaces (Ventricle), then at the expense of the rest of the brain; leads to massive restriction of blood flow
  • Other causes on the central nervous system based
    migraine, Inflammation of the meninges (meningitis), Sunstroke, strong sensory stimuli, intense pain, emotional response
  • mental illness
    Eating disorders like anorexia (Anorexia nervosa) and bulimia (Bulimia nervosa), other mental illness
  • Cumulative effect
    The individual causes add up when they act on the body at the same time and only then lead to vomiting.

Causes in Babies and Children

The Vomiting center of the bodywhich controls the vomiting process is located in the medulla oblongata. This is part of the brain stem and is located between the brain and the spinal cord as a transition. The vomiting center can be young people more easily aroused become. Hence it comes from Infant- and in Childhood more likely to cause irritation and vomitingthan in adults.

On the one hand there may be vomiting harmless be, for example, with babies often after Consumption of Breast milk or food the case is. On the other hand, vomiting can occur symptom represent which on a Underlying disease that may need medical treatment. The most likely diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

But it can also organswhich are not in the abdominal cavity may be responsible for the vomiting, as occurs, for example, with meningitis (meningitis), a swelling of the brain or a tumor in the head. Responsible for this is the increased intracranial pressure that is caused by the disease and on the so-called Area postrema works. This "Measuring station“Lies in the liquor system, the area of ​​the brain in which the cerebral water is located. The area postrema responds to both increased pressure, as well as Contact with toxins with the release of the nausea. It should be not immediately from a brain disease be assumed when a baby or child vomits, as these symptoms usually present complex symptoms.

When classifying the causes vomiting can occur in both the Art vomiting, as well as during Age of patients can be differentiated. Harmless types are belching and Spit, which often have no disease value and only through the Intake of food are to be explained. Since the child's body is still developing, food may find its way back into the oral cavity earlier than in adults.

The vomit comes gush-like, i.e. with great pressure and in large quantities, this can be an indication of a blockage of the intestine (e.g. Small intestinal atresia) or des Gastric outlet (Pyloric stenosis) be. The esophagus, the gullet, works without restriction and does not impede the process of vomiting. If, on the other hand, the process looks limp, a could Occlusion of the esophagus (Esophageal atresia) be the cause of this.

At Newborn Common causes are the already mentioned occlusions of the small intestine or the esophagus, but also the incorrect rotation of the intestinal loops during embryonic development. It comes to Blockage of the lumen of the intestine and also to occlusive symptoms. Constipation of the intestine with very tough fetal stool is rare (Meconium ileus), a disturbance of the metabolism or a cerebral hemorrhage are the cause of the symptoms.

baby vomiting more often due to Infections - both gastrointestinal flu (gastroenteritis), as well as in Urinary tract infection can induce vomiting. A disturbed dietwhether due to unsuitable food or another underlying disease, a Pyloric stenosis and invaginations of the intestinal tract (Intussusception) can also trigger the clinical picture.

While the causes mentioned make up the largest proportion, the following diseases are not as common as the trigger: heart failure, Brain diseases (Infections, space-consuming processes such as bleeding and tumors) and Poisoning.

At Small and school children to step Infections and inflammatory processes of different organs further to the fore. Often solve Gastrointestinal infections (gastroenteritis), Appendicitis (actually inflammation of the appendix of the appendix, but not so called in the vernacular; technically: appendicitis), Pneumonia (pneumonia), Inflammation of the renal pelvis (Pyelonephritis) and Urinary tract infections Vomiting.

Food allergiesThat are not known and have therefore not yet been considered are also an important cause of vomiting in advanced childhood.

As children become more independent, the risk of injuries also increases. A traumatic brain injury can be caused by falls, the symptoms of which also include vomiting.

For the more unlikely causes, one must, in addition to the circumstances already mentioned for infants Inflammation of the liver tissue (Hepatitis) and one Infection with Scarlet fever are counted.

Nausea as the cause of vomiting

In most cases, vomiting is associated with nausea. The feeling of nausea signals to the brain that there is a problem, which the vomiting mechanism can correct.

Vomiting is rarely induced without prior nausea. This can be the case, for example, with mechanical irritation of the throat (touching the uvula) or after gaining large amounts of fluid.

As a rule, almost all causes that can be responsible for vomiting also trigger nausea. The gastric mucous membrane does not necessarily have to be irritated, as can be the case with the ingestion of drugs or toxins, as well as with the consumption of extremely large amounts of food or diseases of the stomach. Overstimulation of the organ of equilibrium with subsequent dizziness or increased intracranial pressure also first trigger nausea before the patient vomits.

Nausea is often seen as a result of a state of exhaustion. The exhaustion can be both physical and psychological in nature.
Also read: Vomiting from stress

The condition also plays an important role in self-protection - through nausea, the further absorption of harmful substances is stopped if the patient is mentally healthy. The physiological or cellular process that occurs when feeling sick is extremely complex. The entire nervous system is involved in the development and ultimately affects the vomiting center of the brain, which is located in the brain stem, in the medulla oblongata.

Diarrhea as the cause of vomiting

Vomiting can be a symptom of one Gastrointestinal disease (e.g. gastroenteritis) be. Such diseases, which can be caused by both bacteria and viruses, also very often lead to another symptom - diarrhea (Diarrhea). These symptoms usually suggest a disease that affects the digestive system of the body.

Vomiting is triggered in addition to diarrhea when the pathogen passes through food gone bad were recorded. While the toxins cause nausea in the stomach, some protective mechanism such as vomiting cannot clear them in the intestines. The toxins and partly also the pathogens themselves, infiltrate, damage and destroy cells of the Intestinal lining. The infection leads through various cellular mechanisms to an increase in fluid in the lumen of the intestine and thus to it diarrhea.

Additional information

  • The main subject is vomiting
    • You are here: Vomiting Causes
    • Induce vomiting
    • Vomiting from stress
    • Vomiting and diarrhea
    • Vomiting in children
    • Vomiting pregnancy
    • Vomiting and fever
    • Vomiting with alcohol
  • nausea
  • diarrhea
  • Desiccosis