Callus on the foot
The human skin consists of a multitude of layers, each of which has a different structure, as each of them has to fulfill a different function. The outermost layer of the skin, the so-called epidermis, is divided into five layers: from the inside out, these are the
- Basal layer
- Prickly cell layer
- Granular layer
- Gloss layer and
- Horny layer (stratum corneum)
The majority of the cells in the epidermis are made up of the horn-forming cells (Keratinocytes) formed, which gradually become the Horn cells (Corneocytes) develop.
The cornea consists entirely of corneocytes. These cells are actually already dead and therefore no longer contain any cell organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, etc.). Between the individual cells there are fats that help keep the horny layer in their Protective function is supported.
Usually the horny cell layer consists of 12 to 200 layers, depending on which part of the body you examine the skin. Further inside, the individual cells (with the help of so-called desmosomes) still form contacts with one another, further towards the surface, in the outermost layer of the horny layer, also known as Stratum disjunctum referred to as.
The cell contacts dissolve, as a result of which the individual horn cells can separate from one another and be removed from the skin. This process is whole natural and necessaryto the skin gradually renew. It usually occurs without these flakes becoming visible to the human eye. Only if there is a fault in the process and, as a result, aggregates of 500 or more cells suddenly detach themselves from the skin, one can do this in the form of Dander detect.
Functions of the cornea
The cornea has an extremely important task for our body. It practically forms one Barrier between the human body and the outside world. On the one hand, it serves as a protection from external influences. In order to be able to penetrate the body, bacteria, viruses and other germs first have to overcome the skin barrier, a hurdle that many microorganisms already fail to overcome.
But our cornea also protects us from mechanical loads: regions that increased pressure or friction are exposed to react with a increased production of cornea.
With the help of the fats that are stored between the corneal cells, the cornea also accomplishes another important task, namely it works through it water repellent and protects the body from unnecessary water retention and also from the dry out.
From the above facts it follows that you have a relatively thick cornea classically on the soles of the feet thinks, because you run on it all the time. On the other hand, a thick callus can develop in unusual places on the foot, for example due to the Wearing too tight or incorrect footwear.
Even playing stringed instruments like a guitar frequently can lead to Callus formation on the fingertips to lead. It is therefore clear that in principle every area of the skin with a excessive corneal production can react if the corresponding stressful circumstances exist.
Pathological corneal development
In rare cases, however, the overproduction of cornea can also exceed a normal, healthy level and thus become pathological and even dangerous under certain circumstances. Then the cornea thickened Signs of chronic inflammation of the skin (dermatitis) and often changed pitted. This is then referred to as Horn or skin calluses or Tylom.
Probably the best known example of this is that Corns. A corn is understood to be a Growth of the cornea (Hyperkeratosis). This is mostly round and between 5 and 10 millimeters big. In the middle there is a mostly yellowish translucent horn wedge (which represents the "eye"), the tip of which is directed downwards and that through the Applying pressure to the underlying tissue can lead to pain.
Ever deeper this spur is enough, the more the corn is more painful usually. The callosity of horns comes about because the corresponding part of the body is covered by thicker, harder skin better protect against external influences tries.
The most common trigger is chronic pressure or friction, especially on skin near the bone. On the sole of the foot, they usually develop near the heads of the metatarsals. The corns are often found on the toes near the toe joints.
They usually make corns no further health risk and are therefore usually only treated if a increased risk for the development of complications or they affect the patient marked feeling of discomfort trigger.
Reasons for the removal of calluses on the foot
It is usually not necessary to remove calluses as they are a natural part of the body and help protect underlying tissues. Even if it is thicker in some areas than others or is considered "normal", there is usually no need to remove the cornea.
The only exception is corns, if they are associated with a high risk of complications (see above) or if the cornea is accompanied by cracks in the skin, which can sometimes be very painful, especially if they reach the blood vessels.
However, many people find a visible cornea uncomfortable and unsightly, which is why they want to remove it. First of all, however, it is important to understand that this can be a lengthy process and by no means go overnight. As long as the cornea takes to develop (On average, a layer of cornea a few millimeters thick takes about a few weeks to develop), you should plan until it has completely disappeared. There are several options available for this, which should be used depending on the severity of the cornea and individual preferences.
More about this topic can be found: Cracked heels
Types of corneal removal
First of all, of course, you should try to see if you canLich is, the cornea without the use of external aids get rid of. This means that if you have increased calluses on your feet, you should start by comfortable and not too tight shoes to wear and also to avoid standing in place for long periods. Shoes that are too warm can also be too warm increased sweating of the feet promote the development of calluses.
It is particularly helpful to prevent an overly pronounced cornea Move, that too Massaging the foot to achieve good blood circulation and thus prevent calluses. Plus, if it's an option for the time of year, it's always a good idea a lot of walking barefootto counteract the formation of calluses. Generally speaking, it makes sense to keep your feet clean on a regular basis Use of ointments, lotions, foams or creams to care for and thereby keep the skin moist and supple.
The simplest method and, above all, also good for corneal layers that are not too thick is that mechanically remove excess cornea what for Rasping, planing or sanding can be used. However, one must always be careful that one is using the appropriate tools no harm causes. It happens quickly that you deal with the sharp devices and so those Development of inflammation evokes. This is probably the gentlest option Using a pumice stone or Sandpaperboth of them only ever Remove the smallest areas of skin at once and therefore represent a particularly gentle way of removing calluses.
It is particularly effective if you put the pumice stone or sandpaper in the Following a foot bath sets in because the skin then already softened is and excess cornea remove even easier leaves. This foot bath can be easy in warm soapy water but there are certain additives that can be added to improve the result. This includes old home remedies such as Apple Cider Vinegar or recent discoveries like Tea tree oil or the juice of the aloe vera plant. This has the same effect as a foot bath Applying hot chamomile packets.
You should avoid it in any case, too radical mechanical methods apply. So should one absolutely refrain from it, self thicker corneal areas with scissors just cut off. On the one hand, this makes the Skin badly injured And besides, it has the negative side effect that the The cornea is usually even stronger again grows back. Also with You always have to be careful with planes and similar devicesso as not to injure the skin and cause more damage than ultimately removing calluses.
Following the use of the remedies listed above, it is best to keep your feet still apply lotion, what for example deer tallow or Marigold ointment, but in principle any moisturizing foot cream is well suited.
In addition to the helpful home remedies mentioned above, there are also special tinctures, ointments and plasters against calluses.
Most of these preparations contain it Salicylic acid and can be bought in pharmacies. On the one hand, salicylic acid has antimicrobial effectwhich is useful in the case of corneal treatment to prevent it inflame damaged skin areas and colonize with germs, especially if they have been caused by previous treatment measures such as planing or sanding more susceptible to external stimuli are than they normally would be.
In addition, salicylic acid has from one Concentration of 5% also one keratolytic (horn-releasing) effect. This effect is due to the fact that the substance that under normal circumstances ensures the cohesion between the individual cells through the Acid dissolved out and the cells are so different from each other and from the remove intact skin to let. From one Concentration of 10% the salicylic acid becomes Treatment of corns and warts used.
These solutions must applied locally be to the To dissolve the horny layer. It is important that the healthy skin not in contact with large areas comes with the remedy, otherwise it can be affected. Salicylic acid works acutely irritating on skin and mucous membrane, which means that it is too
- itching and in the worst case even to
- Tissue damage
Chronic exposure to the acid can even cause it to Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract to lead. All other side effects known from salicylic acid, such as Respiratory depression or liver or kidney damage only if taken orally this drug before.
Another common ingredient in callus creams is urea (urea). This has a double positive effect on the excessive cornea: On the one hand, it acts as a natural moisturizer. Urea ensures that the skin cells absorb more moisture and can also save it. Creams containing urea, which are only used against dryness, usually contain 3 to 20% urea. On the other hand, it also acts directly on the cornea, whereby to achieve this effect, higher concentrations by 40% needed.
Ointments that are also often used Collodion either in an alcohol or ether solution contain. Further horn-dissolving substances (the technical term for this is keratolytics) are:
- Retinoids (for example adapalene and tretinoin),
- Azelaic acid
- Benzoyl peroxide and
- Fruit acids (for example lactic acid, mandelic acid and glycolic acid).
One should be by applying these lotions no improvement or require professional assistance for other reasons, a so-called Podiatrist (a trained podiatrist) who is particularly familiar with corns and calluses on the foot and can arrange an individually tailored therapy or carry it out himself.
Professional treatment is necessary and important, especially for corns, and always has the goal of To remove horn wedge or to dissolve and thus remove (e.g. with the help of tweezers). If that Corn infected this inflammation is treated directly, which often requires the involvement of a doctor because Antibiotics must be used.
With very deep-seated lesions it may be necessary to do this operational to remove. Even if certain Toe or Misaligned feet If the corns are triggers, an operation may be indicated.
If the cornea does not go away despite all attempts at self-treatment and / or other symptoms occur, one should always keep in mind that an increased corneal formation can also be the expression of an underlying disease such as psoriasis, which in some cases also occurs first or primarily can manifest on the feet. If you are unsure about this, it always makes sense to see a doctor and ask for advice.
Home remedies for calluses
Against the Cornea There are also various home remedies on the foot that can be used to remove them. For example, to soften the affected area, both different Foot baths as well as a hot one Chamomile envelope help. For this you need a cloth in which you put some chamomile flowers. Then you can pour some boiling water over it and then - after the cloth has cooled down a little - the affected foot in it for about one Quarter of an hour wrap. If the cornea is then softened, it can with the help of a Pumice stones can usually be rubbed off without problems.
But also Foot baths with various natural additives can have the same effect. Examples of this would be Tea tree oil, Aloe Vera juice or even Apple Cider Vinegar. The foot bath should then be about five minutes take a long time to then use the pumice stone.
There are also various ways of using very simple means to prevent the development of corneas in the first place. Because cornea always arises when in addition to mechanical load the skin relatively dry and is poorly maintained. Hence there are many procedures that are actually pure Foot care serve for corneal prophylaxis in question. For one, can regular lotion and enough moisture of the skin give the feet more resistance. Urea-containing creams with a urea content of more than ten percent can also counteract the development of the cornea.
Also a peeling can both prevent the cornea and - with regular implementation - make the already existing cornea gradually disappear. For the peeling you can use common home remedies such as Olive oil with sugar to be used. For this you should first have a mixture of something Olive oil and a couple of tablespoons of sugar be prepared so that the consistency of this mixture is quite grainy. The feet should be washed and dried beforehand in order not to transport any impurities into the skin.Then the feet can be massaged with the oil-sugar mixture and rinsed off after a few minutes with lukewarm water.
Last but not least, it should Footwear have no additional pressure points and with one Foot malposition the use of insoles can also provide some relief.
For more information read our page Home remedies for calluses.
Creams for use on calluses
The cornea becomes uncomfortable when it dry and cracked becomes. Creams from a wide variety of manufacturers can help against this. When buying such a cream one should make sure that in the cream urea is included. Urea is Urea and is also used by the body when breaking down amino acids, which make up protein, produced. Therefore, allergic reactions to urea-containing creams are extremely rare. Urea is due to its chemical nature able to bind a lot of liquid and is therefore not only suitable for the treatment of calluses, but also as a hand cream. In order to cause an effective detachment of the cornea, should also Creams containing salicylic acid be used. Through the combination of urea and salicylic acid it is achieved that the Skin is softened by the urea and through which salicylic acid is removed. The acid acts like a peeling. Can also increase the suppleness of the feet vaseline be applied. The creams can also be used for prophylaxis on feet that are not yet very keratinized. The thinner the cornea, the better the creams help. However, if the cornea is very thick, one should be added to the creams pumice can be used. Are already small tears (Rhagades) occurred, care should be taken when applying the cream that not too much of the cream gets into the open wound, as this can sometimes occur Infections can lead. Before application, the wounds should also be cleaned and, if possible, disinfected. In the case of not very pronounced forms of the cornea, creams from the drugstore can help, while in the case of very strong forms, in consultation with a doctor, creams from the pharmacy can also help. In general, you should try this yourself first Get a grip on calluses with mild creams from the drugstorebefore resorting to the medically prescribed creams from the pharmacy.
Callus on the heels
Usually the thickened one forms Corneal layer preferably to the Heels. The reason for this is that the Main burden of your own body weight on your heels lies. And calluses tend to develop in areas that are exposed to increased mechanical stress.
But also Footwear, the open in the heel area can promote the development of calluses on the heel, as this increases the pressure on the heel again. On the other hand, much more external stimuli such as dust, sweat or heat come directly to them with open shoes skin and cause additional irritation. Footwear, on the other hand, which is closed all round, can therefore also prevent callus formation on the heel.
Just like other parts of the foot, the heels should also be used regularly greasy and moisturizing creams are cared for so that calluses cannot develop in this highly stressed area.
Cracks in the corneal layer
If the cornea persists longer, it can painful cracks in the corneal layer come. Mostly these are on the heels and balls of the feet localized. One speaks synonymously of so-called Cracks or Rhagades. You can different depths but usually reach into the lower layers of the skin and are a sign of overuse of the skin.
Such cracks can also be counteracted with greasy and moisturizing agentsthat also help against calluses. However, it is important to have a possible one Rule out infection in the affected area in advance. It may be in such a crack Germs have settled. Signs for this are mostly acute signs of inflammation such as redness, swelling, overheating and pain. If this is the case, a specialist should be consulted in order to avoid further complications.