The human head (skull, lat. Caput) is the foremost part of the body. It contains:

  • Sense organs,
  • Organs of ventilation and food intake
  • as well as the brain.

Figure skull

Figure skull from the front and left
  1. Frontal bone -Frontal bone
  2. Parietal bone - Parietal bone
  3. Occiput - Occipital bone
  4. Temporal bone - Temporal bone
  5. Sphenoid bone - Sphenoid bone
  6. Ethmoid - Ethmoid bone
  7. Zygomatic bone - Os zygomaticum
  8. Nasal bone - Os nasal
  9. Upper jaw - Maxilla
  10. Lower jaw - Mandible
  11. Tear bone -Lacrimal bone
  12. Chin hole - Mental foramen
  13. Ploughshare - Vomer
  14. Under eye cavity hole -
    Infraorbital foramen
  15. Zygomatic arch -
    Arcus zygomaticus
  16. Temporomandibular joint -
    Temporomandibular articulation
  17. External ear canal -
    Meatus acousticus externus
  18. Mastoid process
    (Part of the temporal bone) -
    Mastoid process
  19. Lambda seam -
    Sutura lambdoidea
  20. Pelvic seam -
    Sutura squamosa
  21. Crown seam - Coronal suture
  22. Orbital upper edge -
    Margo supraorbitalis

You can find an overview of all Dr-Gumpert images at: medical illustrations


The bony Skull is made up of 22 individual, mostly flat bones. Almost all of these bones are immovably connected to one another;
only the Lower jaw bone (Mandible) can in Temporomandibular joint moved become.

The bony skull is in the Facial- and the Brain skull divided, the border between the upper margin of the Eye socket and the upper edge of the outer Ear canal is to be drawn.

Brain skull (neurocranium)

The Brain skull consists of 7 bones and thus forms both the Skull roof (= Skullcap), as well as the Skull base:

  • Occipital bone (Occiput)
  • 2* Parietal bone (Parietal bone)
  • Frontal bone (Frontal bone)
  • 2* Temporal bone (Temporal bone)
  • Sphenoid bone (Sphenoid bone)

The bones of the Skullcap are initially only cartilaginous connected and only ossify in the course of life. It is therefore still found in infants Fontanelles, where the Frontal fountain and the Occipital fontanel represent the most significant. Based on the position of the fontanelles, for example, the midwife can feel in which position the child will be born from the birth canal.

You can also use so-called Cranial sutures differentiate at which the individual bones are connected. On the top of the skull these are:

  • the Lamda suture,
  • the Forehead seam,
  • the Arrow seam and the Crown seam.

If these cranial sutures become ossified at different times, Skull deformities arise, e.g .: Kahnschädel, Kielschädel, etc.

There are numerous in the area of ​​the skull base openings, through which particular structures of the nervous system to brain pulling towards or away from the brain.

Facial skull (viscerocranium)

The bony one Facial skull is made up of 15 bones that make up the face with eyes-, Noses- and Oral cavity form:

  • Ethmoid bone (Ethmoid bone)
  • 2 * Os nasal (Nasal bone)
  • 2* Maxilla (Maxillary bone)
  • 2* Lacrimal bone (Tear bone)
  • 2* Os zygomaticum (Zygomatic bone)
  • 2* Palatine bone (Palatine bone)
  • 2* Inferior nasal concha (lower turbinate)
  • Vomer (Ploughshare)
  • Mandible (Lower jaw bone)

In the area of ​​the Facial skull there are also the so-called Sinuses (Paranasal sinus):

  • Maxillary sinus (Maxillary sinus)
  • Frontal sinus (Frontal sinus)
  • Sphenoid sinus (Sphenoid sinus)
  • Cellulae ethmoidales (Ethmoid cells)

These are cavities in the bones that are attached to the Nasal cavity which border with Mucous membranes are lined. These cavities are ventilated. It comes to one inflammation the Sinuses one speaks of one Sinusitis.


The human brain is located with the Cerebral water (Liquor) in the bony skull.
On the Brain stem it is directly related to the Spinal cord. There are also numerous running Nerve fibers through various openings of the Skull base to the individual Muscles and Sense organs.

The brain The human brain consists of two hemispheres, each again divided into four Rag are divided into:

  • Frontal lobes (Frontal lobe): Centers of personality & drive control
  • Temporal lobe (Temporal lobe): Hearing center, language center
  • Parietal lobes (Parietal lobes): Center for Spatial Thinking
  • Occipital lobe (Occipital lobe): Visual center

The sense organs


The eyes are an important sense organ. Sight is one of the five human senses alongside hearing, taste, smell and touch. If light falls on the human eye, it is converted into electrical impulses in the retina, which then directs the stimulus to various visual centers in the brain. Information on the proximity, color, size and movement of an object is also processed.


The nose contains the olfactory cells that are present in the area of ​​the nasal mucosa, the so-called olfactory epithelium. Humans have around 10 million olfactory cells that transmit olfactory information to the brain.
The nose also provides access to the airways. During nasal breathing, the inhaled air should be warmed, moistened and cleaned (using special cilia in the area of ​​the nasal mucosa) before it reaches the lower respiratory tract (including the lungs).


The mouth is the first stop in the digestive tract. Here the food is chopped up and partially digested by enzymes in the saliva before it reaches the esophagus by swallowing. There are also numerous taste buds on the tongue, which differentiate between the qualities bitter, sour, salty and sweet and which can pass on the taste information to the brain.
Air can also enter the airways through the mouth, which is then drawn into the windpipe (Trachea) directed.


The ear contains both the hearing and the balance organ.
Sound waves reach the ear via the auditory canal, causing the eardrum to vibrate. By bumping the ossicles (hammer, anvil and stapes), the sound stimulus is passed on to the snail, from where the information then reaches the brain via the auditory nerve.
The organ of equilibrium in the inner ear enables the body to recognize its position in space and, for example, to coordinate movements together with the information from the eyes.