Oral cavity


The oral cavity is divided into two parts, the

  • Oral vestibule (Vestibule oris) and the actual
  • Oral cavity (Cavitas oris propria).

The space between the lips, cheeks and the row of teeth is called the oral vestibule (Vestibule oris) designated. The oral cavity (Cavitas oris) is bounded by the teeth, the roof of the mouth and the floor of the mouth with the tongue. It is lined with oral mucosa that contains many glands. The mucous membrane is always kept moist by the glands and the saliva. There are also sensory receptors for that here Touch and temperature sensation.


The Mouth bay (Stomatodeum) or its lining epithelium arises from one Cotyledon, the Ectoderm and turns inside out from outside during development.
The structures in mouth, how tongue and teeth, develop from the ectoderm and neural crest mesenchyme.
Tongue and teeth are created from the sixth week of the embryo.

Function of the oral cavity

The oral cavity represents the first section of the digestive tract. It mainly serves the Crushing and preparation of food for digestion.

In the oral cavity the food is transported through the teeth crushed and using the tongue grated. The Salivary glands to produce Enzymeswhich break down food into individual components and thaw in the mouth. Daily up to 1.5 liters Saliva produced. Subsequently, the prepared food is directed towards stomach transported on.

In addition, the oral cavity is indispensable for the language (phonetics). This is where the sound of the sounds that are formed in the larynx is created. The oral cavity thus plays an important role in communication.

Oral flora

In the oral cavity are about 300 types of bacteria settled. These are harmless and belong to the "normal" oral flora. The ones produced by the bacteria Metabolic products are usually washed away steadily by the saliva and cannot cause any damage to the oral cavity. If the mouth is very dry, however, if there is too little saliva, these waste products remain in the mouth and lead to bad breath and plaque settling. This is especially the case after sleep, as the production of saliva is reduced. Poor oral hygiene and an unbalanced diet with predominantly acidic and carbohydrate-containing foods also damage the natural oral flora.

Macroscopic structure

The Oral cavity is limited by various structures.

  • To front (ventral) close the Lips the oral cavity,
  • to the pages towards (lateral) limit the Cheeks the oral cavity and
  • to back (dorsal) is the oral cavity through the adjoining Pharynx (Mesopharynx) limited.

It is divided into the Oral vestibule (Vestibule oris) and the actual Oral cavity (Cavitas oris propria). The oral vestibule is the space between

  • Cheeks,
  • Lips and
  • Teeth designated.

The big one flows into these Salivary gland (Parotid gland). Its opening is above the second upper one Molar. The limiting lips are in Upper- and bottom lip divided. In them runs a muscle that Muscle orbicularis oriswhich closes the lips.

  • Sensitive the lips are covered by branches of the Trigeminal nerve innervated (N. maxillary, N. mandibularis).
  • Motorized is the muscle of the lips through the Facial nerve controlled.

Microscopic structure

The Oral cavity gets by one quickly regenerating multilayered epithelium, i.e. covering tissue, lined. Because of this, smaller ones heal Mucosal injuries in the mouth much faster than in other regions.
In the field of hard Palate the epithelium tends to undergo heavy use Keratinization and can by regular long Nicotine use or other noxae degenerate.


The wall of the oral cavity is covered by branches of the Maxillary artery and the Facial artery provided. The arterial supply of the tongue takes place via the Lingual artery. All arteries are branches of the great ones Carotid artery externa.

The sensitive Innervation of the oral cavity is carried out by various nerves.

  • Of the Lower jaw is through branches of the Mandibular nerve provided,
  • of the upper jaw of shares of Maxillary nerve and
  • of the palate through the Glossopharyngeal nerve.


Since the oral cavity contains a lot of bacteria, it is also the starting point for many bacterial infections.

The most well-known disease is that Dental caries (Caries dentium) caused by the presence of certain bacteria (mostly Streptococcus mutans) and the consumption of very sugary foods is favored. The bacteria can be found in almost every mouth. They lie as plaque over the teeth and feed on sugar from the food ingested. With excessive consumption of sugary foods and poor oral hygiene The metabolic products produced by the bacteria can gradually demineralize and thus dissolve the tooth enamel. This consequently leads to the development of tooth decay.

Inflammations in the oral cavity are also common. It can be about Inflammation of the gums (Gingivitis), of the Teeth-supporting apparatus (Periodontitis) or the Oral mucosa (Stomatitis) act. These different inflammations can be caused by Bacteria, viruses or fungi be evoked. Basically, inflammations of the oral mucosa heal quite quickly, as they do so very quickly well supplied with blood and damaged cells are quickly replaced. You can support the healing process by avoiding hard food that has many edges. Also one Gargle solution can be helpful. Either Sage or chamomile tea used or a product available in the pharmacy.

Fungal infections usually only occur in people who are in poor general condition or whose immune system is suppressed. The most common fungus that affects the oral cavity is the Candida albicans yeast. This leads to a so-called Oral thrush. This is a whitish coating in the mouth.

Tumors can occur in the oral cavity. They are noticeable as tangible and / or visible lumps. The places that are most often affected are the anterior floor of the mouth and the Tongue edge. Nicotine and alcohol abuse can increase the risk of developing tumors.


The oral cavity, which is divided into two areas, is used for Crushing and preparation the food for that stomach. Because of this, are tongue and teeth, as well as the produced saliva to be found in the oral cavity and prepare the food for onward transport.

The oral cavity is made up of various structures, such as Lips, Cheeks and throat limited.
she will sensitive and motorized innervated by various branches of the trigeminal nerve and the facial nerve.